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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
Provisions of the Act The term of office of the members of the Court of Directors was extended from one year to four years. One-fourth of them were to retire every year and the retiring Directors were not eligible for re-election. . The Governor of Bengal was styled the Governor-General of Fort Willianm whose tenure of office was for a period of five years. .A council of four members was appointed to assist the Governor-General. The government was to be conducted in accordance with the decision of the majority. The Governor- General had a casting vote in case of a tie.
Provisions of the Act The Governor-General in Council was made supreme over the other Presidencies in matters of war and peace Provision was made in the Act for the establishment of a Supreme Court at Calcutta consisting of a Chief Justice and three junior judges. It was to be independent of the Governor- General in Council. In 1774, the Supreme Court was established by a Royal Charter. This Act prevented the servants of the Company including the Governor- General, members of his council and the judges of the Supreme Court from receiving directly or indirectly any gifts in kind or cash.
Merits and Demerits of the Act The significance of the Regulating Act is that it brought the affairs of the Company under the control of the Parliament. Besides, it proved that the Parliament of England was concerned about the welfare of Indians. . The greatest merit of this Act is that it put an end to the arbitrary rule of the Company and provided a framework for all future enactments relating to the governing of India The main defect of the Act was that the Governor-General was made powerless because the council which was given supreme power often created deadlocks by over-ruling his decision. However, many of these defects were rectified by the Pitt's India Act of 1784.
The Rohilla War (1774) . Rohilkand was a small kingdom situated in between Oudh and the Marathas. Its ruler was Hafiz Rahmat Khan. . He concluded a defensive treaty in 1772 with the Nawab of Oudh fearing an attack by the Marathas. But no such attack took place. But, the Nawab demanded money. When Rahmat Khan evaded, the Nawab with the help of the British invaded Rohilkand. . Warren Hastings, who sent the British troops against Rohilkand was severely crticised for his policy on Rohilla affair.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) . The Marathas were largely remained disunited since the Third Battle of Panipet (1761). The internal conflict among the Marathas was best utilized by the British in their expansionist policy. . In 1775, there was a dispute for the post of Peshwa between Madhav Rao and his uncle Ragunatha Rao. The British authorities in Bombay concluded the Treaty of Surat with Raghunatha Rao in March 1775. Rahunatha Rao promised to cede Bassein and Salsette to the British but later when he was unwilling to fulfill his promise, the British captured them . This action of the Bombay Government was not approved by Warren Hastings.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) . In 1776, Warren Hastings sent Colonel Upton to settle the issue. He cancelled the Treaty of Surat and concluded the Treaty of Purander with Nana Fadnavis, another Maratha leader. According to this treaty Madhava Rao ll was accepted as the new Peshwa and the British retained Salsette along with a heavy war indemnity. However, the Home authorities rejected the Treaty of Purander. Warren Hastings also considered the Treaty of Purandar as a 'scrap of paper' and sanctioned operations against the Marathas. In the meantime, the British force sent by the Bombay Government was defeated by the Marathas
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) . In 1781, Warren Hastings dispatched British troops under the command of Captain Popham. . He defeated the Maratha chief, Mahadaji Scindia, in a number of small battles and captured Gwalior. Later in May 1782, the Treaty of Salbai was signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia. . Accordingly, Salsette and Bassein were given to the British. Raghunath Rao was pensioned off and Madhav Rao ll was accepted as the Peshwa.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) The Treaty of Salbai established the British influence in Indian politics. . It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas . The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali. Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) The Treaty of Salba established the British influence in Indian politics. It provided the British twenty years of peace with the Marathas. The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali. Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) Main causes for the second Anglo-Mysore War were: The British failed to fulfill the terms of the defensive treaty with Haider when he was attacked by the Marathas in 1771. There was an outbreak of hostilities between the English and the French (an ally of Haider) during the American War of Independence. The British captured Mahe, a French settlement within Haider's territories. . Haider Ali formed a grand alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas against the British in 1779.
Pitt's India Act, 1784 . A Board of Control consisting of six members was created. They were appointed by the Crown. The Court of Directors was retained without any alteration in its composition The Act also introduced significant changes in the Indian administration. It reduced the number of the members of the Governor-General's Council from four to three including the Commander-in-Chief.