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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
Significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement It was the real mass movement with the participation of different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women It witnessed the spread of nationalism to the remote corners of India. . It also marked the height of Hindu-Muslim unity as a result of the merger of Khilafat movement. . It demonstrated the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices.
Swaraj Party . The suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement led to a split within Congress in the Gaya session of the Congress in December 1922. . Leaders like Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das formed a separate group within the Congress known as the Swaraj Party on 1 January 1923. . The Swarajists wanted to contest the council elections and wreck the government from within, . Elections to Legislative Councils were held in November 1923. In this, the Swaraj Party gained impressive successes. . In the Central Legislative Council Motilal Nehru became the leader of the party whereas in Bengal the party was headed by C.R. Das.
Swaraj Party The Swaraj Party did several significant things in the Legislative Council It demanded the setting up of responsible government in India with the necessary changes in the Government of India Act of 1919. . The party could pass important resolutions against the repressive laws of the government. . After the passing away of C.R. Das in June 1925, the Swarj Party started weakening
Simon Commission (1927) The Act of 1919 included a provision for its review after a lapse of ten years. However, the review commission was appointed by the British Government two years earlier of its schedule in 1927. . It came to be known as Simon Commission after the name of its chairman, Sir John Simon. All its seven members were Englishmen. . As there was no Indian member in it, the Commission faced a lot of criticism even before its landing in India. . Almost all the political parties including the Congress decided to oppose the Commission
Simon Commission (1927) . When the Commission reached Bombay, a general hartal was observed all over the country. Everywhere it was greeted with black flags and the cries of Simon go back' At Lahore, the students took out a large anti-Simon Commission demonstration on 30 October 1928 under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. In this demonstration, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge and he passed away after one month.
Simon Commission (1927) The report of the Simon Commission was published in May 1930. It was stated that the constitutional experiment with Dyarchy was unsuccessful and in its place the report recommended the establishment of autonomous government. There is no doubt that the Simon Commission's Report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act of 1935
Nehru Report (1928) . In the meanwhile, the Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution that would be acceptable to all The challenge was accepted by the Congress, which convened an al party meeting on 28 February 1928. . A committee consisting of eight was constituted to draw up a blueprint for the future Constitution of India. It was headed by Motilal Nehru. . The Report published by this Committee came to be known as the Nehru Report.
Nehru Report (1928) The Report favoured: Dominion Status as the next immediate step . Full responsible government at the centre . Autonomy to the provinces . Clear cut division of power between the centre and the provinces A bicameral legislature at the centre
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934) In the prevailing atmosphere of restlessness, the annual session of the Congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. During this session presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru the Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution. Moreover, as the government failed to accept the Nehru Report, the Congress gave a call to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. The Congress had also observed January 26, 1930 as the Day of Independence. Since then January 26 had been observed as a day of independence every year. . The same date later became the Republic Day when the Indian Constitution was enforced in 1950
The Dandi March . On 12 March 1930, Gandhi began his famous March to Dandi with his chosen 79 followers to break the salt laws. He reached the coast of Dandi on 5 April 1930 after marching a distance of 200 miles and on 6 April formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws. .On 9 April, Mahatma Gandhi laid out the programme of the movement which included making of salt in every village in violation of the existing salt laws; picketing by women before the shops selling liquor, opium and foreign clothes; organising the bonfires of foreign clothes; spinning clothes by using charkha fighting untouchability; boycotting of schools and colleges by students and resigning from government jobs by the people. Over and above all these, the programme also called upon the people not to pay taxes to the government
Round Table Conference The British government adopted the strategy of talking to different political parties by convening the Round Table Conferences. The first Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 at London and it was boycotted it by the Congress. . In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison. On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-lrwin Pact was signed. As per this pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil-Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second- Round Table Conference.
Poona Pact (1932) By 1930, Dr Ambedkar had become a leader of national stature championing the cause of the depressed people of the country While presenting a real picture of the condition of these people in the First Round Table Conference, he had demanded separate electorates for them. .On 16 August 1932 the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement, which came to be as the Communal Award. According to this award, the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them. Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
Individual Satyagraha . During the course of the Second World War in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the 'August Offer' . The August Offer envisaged that after the War a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution. Gandhi was not satisfied with is offer and decided to launch Individual Satyagraha . Individual Satyagraha was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature and it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to choose the Satyagrahis. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months
Quit India Movement (1942-1944) The failure of the Cripps Mission and the fear of an impending Japanese invasion of India led Mahatma Gandhi to begin his campaign for the British to quit India. Mahatma Gandhi believed that an interim government could be formed only after the British left India and the Hindu-Muslim problem sorted out. . The All India Congress Committee met at Bombay on 8 August 1942 and passed the famous Quit India Resolution. On the same day, Gandhi gave his call of 'do or die'. . On 8 and 9 August 1942, the government arrested all the promin- ent leaders of the Congress. For once, this pre-planned action of the government left the Indian people without leadership. Mahatma Gandhi was kept in prison at Poona. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad, and other leaders were imprisoned in the Ahmednagar Fort.
Quit India Movement (1942-1944) At this time, leadership was provided by Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta and S.M. Joshi. The role of Jayaprakash Narain in this movement was important. . Large number of students also left their schools and colleges to join the movement. The youth of the nation also participated in this movement with patriotism. Strikes, demonstrations and public meetings were organised in various towns and cities. Slowly the movement reached the rural areas
Quit India Movement (1942-1944) In 1943, as the movement gained further momentum, there were armed attacks on government buildings in Madras and Bengal. . In 1944 Mahatma Gandhi was released from jail. Quit India Movement was the final attempt for country's freedom. . The British Government ordered for 538 rounds of firing. Nearly 60,229 persons were jailed. At least 7,000 people were killed. This movement paved the way for India's freedom. It aroused among Indians the feelings of bravery, enthusiasm and total sacrifice.
Cabinet Mission (1946) .After the Second World War, Lord Atlee became the Prime Minister of England. On 15 March, 1946 Lord Atlee made a historic announcement in which the right to self-determination and the framing of a Constitution for India were conceded Consequently, three members of the British Cabinet Pathick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander - were sent to India. This is known as the Cabinet Mission. The Cabinet Mission put forward a plan for solution of the constitutional problem. Provision was made for three groups of provinces to possess their separate constitutions
Mountbatten Plan (1947) On 20 February 1947, Prime Minister Atlee announced in the House of Commons the definite intention of the British Government to transfer power to responsible Indian hands by a date not later than June 1948. Thus, to effect the transference of that power Atlee decided to send Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy to India. Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India's Viceroy on 24 March 1947. The partition of India and the creation of Pakistan appeared inevitable to him. After extensive consultation Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947. The Congress and the Muslim League ultimately approved the Mountbatten Plan.
Indian Independence . The Radcliff Boundary Commission drew the boundary line separating India and Pakistan. .On 15th August 1947 India, and on the 14th August Pakistan came into existence as two independent states. Lord Mountbatten was made the first Governor General of Independent India, whereas Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General of Pakistan