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Permanent settlement
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Siva Prasad is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Siva Prasad
Alumni- Indian Institute of Science(IISc), Bangalore; Part of Harvard Business School CORe 2020 cohort; Telegram ID/Promo code - akmsiva

Unacademy user
Terus semangat kak bagi ilmunya ❤️
First take of you sir & then think about lessons. Because I suppose side by your preparation also going on for one or other exam.... I can realize how much Efforts you are talking for us. thanks sir
Siva Prasad
2 years ago
And add lessons whenever possible from your side thanks sir
Siva Prasad
2 years ago
Don't worry, I am working on it too :)
Samadhan Tangde
2 years ago
  1. TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD


  3. The Permanent Settlement .Lord Cornwallis' most conspicuous administrative measure was the Permanent Land Revenue Settlement of Bengal, which was extended to the provinces of Bihar and Orissa. . It is appropriate to recall that Warren Hastings introduced the annual lease system of auctioning the land to the highest bidder. It created chaos in the revenue administration .Cornwallis at the time of his appointment was instructed by the Directors to find a satisfactory and permanent solution to the problems of the land revenue system in order to protect the interests of both the Company and the cultivators.

  4. The Permanent Settlement Main features The zamindars of Bengal were recognised as the owners of land as long as they paid the revenue to the East India Company regularly The amount of revenue that the zamindars had to pay to the Company was firmly fixed and would not be raised under any circumstances. In other words the Government of the East India Company got 89% leaving the rest to the zamindars. The ryots became tenants since they were considered the tillers of the soil. This settlement took away the administrative and judicial functions of the zamindars.

  5. The Permanent Settlement Main features . The Permanent Settlement of Cornwallis was bitterly criticised on the point that it was adopted with 'undue haste'. The flagrant defect of this arrangement was that no attempt was made ever either to survey the lands or to assess their value. The assessment was made roughly on the basis of accounts of previous collections and it was done in an irregular manner. The effects of this system both on the zamindars and ryots were disastrous. As the revenue tixed by the system was too high, many zamindars defaulted on payments. Their property was seized and distress sales were conducted leading to their ruin. The rich zamindars who led luxurious lives left their villages and migrated into towns. They entrusted their rent collection to agents who exacted all kinds of illegal taxes besides the legal ones from the ryots

  6. The Permanent Settlement Main features . This had resulted in a great deal of misery amongst the peasants and farmers. . Though initially the Company gained financially, in the long run the Company suffered financial loss because land productivity was high, income from it was meagre since it was a fixed sum. . Nevertheless, this system proved to be a great boon to the zamindars and to the government of Bengal. It formed a regular income and stabilised the government of the Company. The zamindars prospered at the cost of the welfare of the tenants

  7. Ryotwari Settlement The Ryotwari settlement was introduced mainly in Madras, Berar, Bombay and Assam. Sir Thomas Munro introduced this system in the Madras Presidency. Under this settlement, the peasant was recognised as the proprietor of land. There was no intermediary like a Zamindar between the peasant and the government. So long as he paid the revenue in time, the peasant was not evicted from the land. Besides, the land revenue was fixed for a period from 20 to 40 years at a time. Every peasant was held personally responsible for direct payment of land revenue to the government .However, in the end, this system also failed. Under this settlement it was certainly not possible to collect revenue in a systematic manner. The revenue officials indulged in harsh mesuares for non payment or delayed payment.

  8. Mahalwari Settlement . In 1833, the Mahalwari settlement was introduced in the Punjab, the Central Provinces and parts of North Western Provinces. Under this system the basic unit of revenue settlement was the village or the Mahal. . As the village lands belonged jointly to the village community, the responsibility of paying the revenue rested with the entire Mahal or the village community. So the entire land of the village was measured at the time of fixing the revenue. Though the Mahalwari system eliminated middlemen between the government and the village community and brought about improvement in irrigation facility, yet its benefit was largely enjoyed by the government.

  9. British Policy towards Indian Handicrafts The European companies began arriving on the Indian soil from 16th century. During this period, they were constantly engaged in fierce competition to establish their supremacy and monopoly over Indian trade Not surprisingly, therefore, initial objective of the English East India Company was to have flourishing trade with India. Later, this objective was enlarged to acquire a monopoly over this trade and obtain its entire profit. . Although the trade monopoly thus acquired by the Company in India was ended by the Charter Act of 1833, yet the British Policy of exploiting the resources of India continued unabated. . In this respect, the nature of the British rule was different from the earlier rulers.

  10. British Policy towards Indian Handicrafts . As far as the traditional handicraft industry and the production of objects of art were concerned, India was already far ahead of other countries in the world The textiles were the most important among the Indian industries. Its cotton, silk and woolen products were sought after all over the world. . Particularly, the muslin of Dacca, carpets of Lahore, shawls of Kashmir, and the embroidery works of Banaras were very famous. . Ivory goods, wood works and jewellery were other widely sought after Indian commodities

  11. British Policy towards Indian Handicrafts Despite enjoying such fame in the world, the Indian handicraft industry had begun to decline by the beginning of the 18th century. There were many reasons for it. First, the policies followed by the English East India Company proved to be highly detrimental to the Indian handicrafts industry. The Indian market was flooded with the cheap finished goods from Britain. It resulted in a steep decline in the sale of Indian products both within and outside of the country. . In 1769, the Company encouraged the cultivation of raw silk in Bengal while imposing service restrictions on the sale of its finished products. . In 1813 strategies were devised by the Company to enhance the consumption of finished goods from Britain. In this respect the tariff and octroi policies were suitably modified to suit the British commercial interests.

  12. British Policy towards Indian Handicrafts Besides, the Industrial revolution led to the invention of new machinery in Europe. Power looms replaced handlooms. In India also the advent of machines led to the decline of handicraft as now the machine-made products were available at cheaper rate and more goods could be produced in much lesser time. Finally, the new communication and transport facilities brought about a revolution in public life. Earlier, goods used to be transported either by bullock carts or by ships. but now conditions were changed with the introduction of railways and steamer services. Concrete roads were laid to connect the country's agricultural hinterland. The import of goods from England also increased with the simultaneous increase in exports of raw materials from India, leading to massive loss of jobs among Indian artisans and craftsman who lost their only means to livelihood