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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1917-1947)
Khilafat Movement . The chief cause of the Khilafat Movement was the defeat of Turkey in the First World War. The harsh terms of the Treaty of Sevres (1920) was felt by the Muslims as a great insult to them The whole movement was based on the Muslim belief that the Caliph (the Sultan of Turkey) was the religious head of the Muslims all over the world. . The Muslims in India were upset over the British attitude against Turkey and launched the Khilafat Movement. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saifuddin Kitchlew and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of this movement.
Khilafat Movement A Khilafat Committee had been formed and on 19 October 1919, the whole country had observed the Khilafat day. . On 23 November, a joint conference of the Hindus and the Muslims had also been held under the chairmanship of Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi was particularly interested in bringing the Hindus and the Muslims together to achieve the country's independence. . Subsequently, the Khilafat Movement merged with the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) Mahatma Gandhi announced his plan to begin Non-Cooperation with the government as a sequel to the Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Khilafat Movement. It was approved by the Indian National Congress at the Nagpur session in December, 1920.
NCM Programme .Surrender of titles and honorary positions. Resignation of membership from the local bodies. .Boycott of elections held under the provisions of the 1919 Act Boycott of government functions Boycott of courts, government schools and colleges. Boycott of foreign goods. Establishment of national schools, colleges and private panchayat courts. Popularizing swadeshi goods and khadi
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) The movement began with Mahatma Gandhi renouncing the titles, which were given by the British. Other leaders and influential persons also followed him by surrendering their honorary posts and titles. . Students came out of the government educational institutions. National schools such as the Kashi Vidyapeeth, the Bihar Vidyapeeth and the Jamia Millia Islamia were set up . All the prominent leaders of the country gave up their lucrative legal practice. Legislatures were boycotted. No leader of the Congress came forward to contest the elections for the Legislatures
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) . In 1921, mass demonstrations were held against the Prince of Wales during his tour of India. The government resorted to strong measures of repression Many leaders were arrested. . The Congress and the Khilafat Committees were proclaimed as illegal. At several places, bonfires of foreign clothes were organised. The message of Swadeshi spread everywhere. Most of the households took to weaving cloths with the help of charkhas
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) . But the whole movement was abruptly called off on 11 February 1922 by Gandhi following the Churi Chaura incident in the Gorakpur district of U.P. Earlier on 5 February an angry mob set fire to the police station at Churi Chaura and twenty two police men were burnt to death. Many top leaders of the country were stunned at this sudden suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922
Significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement It was the real mass movement with the participation of different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women It witnessed the spread of nationalism to the remote corners of India. . It also marked the height of Hindu-Muslim unity as a result of the merger of Khilafat movement. . It demonstrated the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices.
Swaraj Party The Swaraj Party did several significant things in the Legislative Council It demanded the setting up of responsible government in India with the necessary changes in the Government of India Act of 1919. . The party could pass important resolutions against the repressive laws of the government. . After the passing away of C.R. Das in June 1925, the Swarj Party started weakening
Simon Commission (1927) . When the Commission reached Bombay, a general hartal was observed all over the country. Everywhere it was greeted with black flags and the cries of Simon go back' At Lahore, the students took out a large anti-Simon Commission demonstration on 30 October 1928 under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. In this demonstration, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge and he passed away after one month.
Nehru Report (1928) The Report favoured: Dominion Status as the next immediate step . Full responsible government at the centre . Autonomy to the provinces . Clear cut division of power between the centre and the provinces A bicameral legislature at the centre
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934) In the prevailing atmosphere of restlessness, the annual session of the Congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. During this session presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru the Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution. Moreover, as the government failed to accept the Nehru Report, the Congress gave a call to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. The Congress had also observed January 26, 1930 as the Day of Independence. Since then January 26 had been observed as a day of independence every year. . The same date later became the Republic Day when the Indian Constitution was enforced in 1950
The Dandi March . On 12 March 1930, Gandhi began his famous March to Dandi with his chosen 79 followers to break the salt laws. He reached the coast of Dandi on 5 April 1930 after marching a distance of 200 miles and on 6 April formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws. .On 9 April, Mahatma Gandhi laid out the programme of the movement which included making of salt in every village in violation of the existing salt laws; picketing by women before the shops selling liquor, opium and foreign clothes; organising the bonfires of foreign clothes; spinning clothes by using charkha fighting untouchability; boycotting of schools and colleges by students and resigning from government jobs by the people. Over and above all these, the programme also called upon the people not to pay taxes to the government
Round Table Conference The British government adopted the strategy of talking to different political parties by convening the Round Table Conferences. The first Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 at London and it was boycotted it by the Congress. . In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison. On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-lrwin Pact was signed. As per this pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil-Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second- Round Table Conference.