Siva Prasad is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
Theosophical Society . The Theosophical Society was founded in New York in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott. Their main objectives were to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour or creed and to promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies. They arrived in India and established their headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1882. Later in 1893, Mrs. Annie Besant arrived in India and took over the leadership of the Society after the death of Olcott . Mrs. Annie Besant founded the Central Hindu School along with Madan Mohan Malaviya at Benaras which later developed into the Banaras Hindu University.
Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Pandit Ishwar Chandra was a great educator, humanist and social reformer. He rose to be the Head Pandit of the Bengali Department of Fort William College. He firmly believed that reform in Indian society could only come about through education Vidyasagar founded many schools for girls. He helped J.D. Bethune to establish the Bethune School. He founded the Metropolitan Institution in Calcutta. He protested against child marriage and favoured widow remarriage which was legalised by the Widow Remarriage Act (1856). It was due to his great support for the spread of education that he was given the title of Vidyasagar.
Jyotiba Phule Jyotiba Phule belonged to a low caste family in Maharashtra. He waged a life-long struggle against upper caste domination and Brahmanical supremacy. . In 1873 he founded the Satyashodak Samaj to fight against the caste system . He pioneered the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra and worked for the education for women. . Jyotiba Phule and his wife established the first girls' school at Poona in 1851.
Muslim Reform Movements The Muslim reform movements started a little later because they had avoided western education in the beginning. . The first effort was in 1863 when the Muhammad Literary Society was set up in Calcutta. Its aim was to popularise the study of English and western sciences. It established a number of schools in Bengal.
Aligarh Movement The Aligarh Movement was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan for the social and educational advancement of the Muslims in India . He fought against the medieval backwardness and advocated a rational approach towards religion. . In 1866, he started the Mohammadan Educational Conference as a general forum for spreading liberal ideas among the Muslims. I . n 1875, he founded a modern school at Aligarh to promote English education among the Muslims. This had later grown into the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College and then into the Aligarh Muslim University.
The Deoband School . The orthodox section among the Muslim ulema organised the Deoband Moovement. It was a revivalist movement whose twin objectives were: (a) to propagate among the Muslims the pure teachings of the Koran and the Hadis and (b) to keep alive the spirit of jihad aganist the foreign rulers. . The new Deoband leader Mahmud-ul-Hasan sought to impart a political and intellectual content to the religious ideas of the school
Sikh Reform Movement Punjab also came under the spell of reforms. Baba Dayal Das founded the Nirankari Movement. He insisted the worship of God as nirankar (formless) The Namdhari Movement was founded by Baba Ram Singh. His followers wore white clothes and gave up meat eating. The Singh Sabhas started in Lahore and Amritsar in 1870 were aimed at reforming the Sikh society. They helped to set up the Khalsa College at Amritsar in 1892.They also encouraged Gurmukhi and Punjabi literature. In 1920, the Akalis started a movement to remove the corrupt Mahants (priests) from the Sikh gurudwaras.
Parsi Reform Movement The Parsi Religious Reform Association was founded at Bombay by Furdunji Naoroji and S.S. Bengalee in 1851 They advocated the spread of women's education. They also wanted to reform their marriage customs. Naoroji published a monthly journal, Jagat Mithra. The momentum gathered through these reform movements and went a long way in uplifting the entire community.
Saint Ramalinga Saint Ramalinga was one of the foremost saints of Tamil Nadu in the nineteenth century . In 1865 he founded the Samarasa Suddha Sanmargha Sangha for the promotion of his ideals of establishing a casteless society. . He preached love and compassion to the people. He composed Tiru Arutpa. His other literay works include Manu Murai Kanda Vasagam and Jeeva Karunyam . His language was so simple as to enable the illiterate people to understand his teachings . He also started constructing the Satya Gnana Sabai in 1872. He introduced the principle that God could be worshipped in the form of Light.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R. He attacked the laws of Manu, which he called the basis of the entire Hindu social fabric of caste. . He founded the Tamil journals Kudiarasu, Puratchi and Viduthalai to propagate his ideals. . In 1938 at Tamil Nadu Women's Conference appreciatin the noble service e was given the title "Periyar"". rendered by E.V.R. he was given the title "Periyar" . In 1970 by the UNESCO organisation praised and adorned with the title "Socrates of South Asia".