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Demands of the Moderates
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Siva Prasad
Alumni- Indian Institute of Science(IISc), Bangalore; Part of Harvard Business School CORe 2020 cohort; Telegram ID/Promo code - akmsiva

U
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ma am mujhe english sudh sudh likhna or padna nhi aata ydi aapke pass time ho to es pe video bna do
sir what was your mark in public administration optional in mains 2017 sir? i want to take pub ad as my optional! please help
Siva Prasad
a year ago
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  1. TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD


  2. Three phases of Indian national movement The phase of moderate nationalism (1885-1905) when the Congress continued to be loyal to the British crown. The years 1906-1916 witnessed- Swadeshi Movement, rise of militant nationalism and the Home Rule Movement. . The period from 1917 to1947 is known as the Gandhian era.


  3. Moderate Nationalism . The leading figures during the first phase of the National Movement were A.O. Hume, W.C. Banerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji, Justice Ranade and G.Subramanya Aiyar . Between 1885 and 1905, the Congress leaders were moderates. The Moderates had faith in the British justice and goodwill. They were called moderates because they adopted peaceful and constitutional means to achieve their demands.


  4. Main Demands of Moderates .Expansion and reform of legislative councils. Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India . Separation of the judiciary from the executive. . More powers for the local bodies. Reduction of land revenue and protection of peasants from unjust landlords.


  5. Main Demands of Moderates . Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty. .Reduction of spending on army. . Freedom of speech and expression and freedom to form associations


  6. Methods of Moderates . The Moderates had total faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They were loyal to the British. They looked to England for inspiration and guidance. . The Moderates used petitions, resolutions, meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memorandum and delegations to present their demands. They confined their political activities to the educated classes only. Their aim was to attain political rights and self-government stage by stage.


  7. Achievements of Moderates The Moderates were able to create a wide national awakening among the people. . They popularized the ideas of democracy, civil liberties and representative institutions. They explained how the British were exploiting Indians. Particularly, Dadabhai Naoroji in his famous book Poverty and UnBritish Rule in India wrote his Drain Theory. He showed how India's wealth was going away to England in the form of: (a) salaries, (b)savings, (c) pensions, (d) payments to British troops in India and (e) profits of the British companies. In fact, the British Government was forced to appoint the Welby Commission, with Dadabhai as the first Indian as its member, to enquire into the matter.


  8. Achievements of Moderates . Some Moderates like Ranade and Gokhale favoured social reforms. They protested against child marriage and widowhood. The Moderates had succeeded in getting the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.