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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS
Raja Rammohan Roy and the Brahmo Samaj .Raja Rammohan Roy established the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta in 1828 in order to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism. . He is considered as the first 'modern man of India'. He was a pioneer of socio-religious reform movements in modern India . He studied the Bible as well as Hindu and Muslim religious texts. . He had excellent command over many languages including English, Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew.
Raja Rammohan Roy and the Brahmo Samaj . In 1815, he established the Atmiya Sabha. Later, it was developed into the Brahmo Sabha in August 1828. Through this organisation, he preached that there is only one . He combined the teachings of the Upanishads, the Bible and the Koran in developing unity among the people of different religions. The work of the Atmiya Sabha was carried on by Maharishi Debendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore), who renamed it as Brahmo Samaj. He turned the Brahmo Samaj into a leading social organisation of India.
Raja Rammohan Roy . Raj Rammohan Roy is most remembered for helping Lord William Bentinck to declare the practice of Sati a punishable offence in 1829. . He also protested against the child marriage and female infanticide. He favored the remarriage of widows, female education and women's right to property. . He felt that the caste system was the greatest hurdle to Indian unity. He believed in the equality of mankind. He did not believe in the supremacy of the Brahmin priests. He favoured inter-caste marriages. He himself adopted a Muslim boy. In 1817, he founded the Hindu College (now Presidency College, Calcutta) along with David Hare, a missionary. He also set up schools for girls. . Rammohan Roy started the first Bengali weekly Samvad Kaumudi and edited a Persian weekly Mirat-ul-akhbar.
Henry Vivian Derozio and the Young Bengal Movement Henry Vivian Derozio was the founder of the Young Bengal Movement. . He was a teacher in the Hindu College, Calcutta. . His followers were known as the Derozians and their movement the Young Bengal Movement. They attacked old traditions and decadent customs. They also advocated women's rights and their education. They founded associations and organized debates against idol worship, casteism and superstitions.
Swami Dayanand Saraswathi and the Arya Samaj The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswathi at Bombay in 1875. the Vedas" . He believed the Vedas were the source of true knowledge. His motto was "Back to . He was against idol worship, child marriage and caste system based on birth. He encouraged inter- caste marriages and widow remarriage. . He started the Suddhi movement to bring back those Hindus who had converted to other religions to its fold. . He wrote the book Satyartha Prakash which contains his ideas.
Arya Samaj . The Arya Samaj, though founded in Bombay, became very powerful in Punjab and spread its influence to other parts of India. It has contributed very much to the spread of education. The first Dayanand Anglo-Vedic (DAV) School was founded in 1886 at Lahore. Many more schools came up in other parts of India in later years. The Arya Samaj had also spread nationalism. . Hundreds of Arya Samaj patriots, including Lala Lajpat Rai, took part in the Indian freedom struggle.
Prarthana Samaj . The Prarthana Samaj was founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang . It was an off-shoot of Brahmo Samaj. It was a reform movement within Hinduism and concentrated on social reforms like inter-dining, inter- marriage, widow remarriage and uplift of women and depressed classes. Justice M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar joined it in 1870 and infused new strength to it. Justice Ranade promoted the Deccan Education Society.
Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Mission The original name of Swami Vivekananda was Narendranath Dutta and he became the most famous disciple of Shri Ramkrishna Paramahamsa . In 1886 Narendranath took the vow of Sanyasa and was given the name, Vivekananda . He preached Vedantic Philosophy. He condemned the caste system and the current Hindu emphasis on rituals and ceremonies. Swami Vivekananda participated at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago (USA) in September 1893 and raised the prestige of India and Hinduism very high.
Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda preached the message of strength and self- reliance. He asked the people to improve the lives of the poor and depressed classes. . He believed that service to mankind is service to God. . He founded the Ramkrishna Mission at Belur in Howrah in 1897. It is a social service and charitable society. . The objectives of this Mission are providing humanitarian relief and social work through the establishment of schools, colleges, hospitals and orphanages.
Theosophical Society . The Theosophical Society was founded in New York in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott. Their main objectives were to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour or creed and to promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies. They arrived in India and established their headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1882. Later in 1893, Mrs. Annie Besant arrived in India and took over the leadership of the Society after the death of Olcott . Mrs. Annie Besant founded the Central Hindu School along with Madan Mohan Malaviya at Benaras which later developed into the Banaras Hindu University.
Jyotiba Phule Jyotiba Phule belonged to a low caste family in Maharashtra. He waged a life-long struggle against upper caste domination and Brahmanical supremacy. . In 1873 he founded the Satyashodak Samaj to fight against the caste system . He pioneered the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra and worked for the education for women. . Jyotiba Phule and his wife established the first girls' school at Poona in 1851.
The Deoband School . The orthodox section among the Muslim ulema organised the Deoband Moovement. It was a revivalist movement whose twin objectives were: (a) to propagate among the Muslims the pure teachings of the Koran and the Hadis and (b) to keep alive the spirit of jihad aganist the foreign rulers. . The new Deoband leader Mahmud-ul-Hasan sought to impart a political and intellectual content to the religious ideas of the school
Saint Ramalinga Saint Ramalinga was one of the foremost saints of Tamil Nadu in the nineteenth century . In 1865 he founded the Samarasa Suddha Sanmargha Sangha for the promotion of his ideals of establishing a casteless society. . He preached love and compassion to the people. He composed Tiru Arutpa. His other literay works include Manu Murai Kanda Vasagam and Jeeva Karunyam . His language was so simple as to enable the illiterate people to understand his teachings . He also started constructing the Satya Gnana Sabai in 1872. He introduced the principle that God could be worshipped in the form of Light.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R. . Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy was a great social reformer. In 1921, during the anti-liquor campaign he cut down 1000 coconut trees in his own farm. . In 1924, he took an active part in the Vaikam Satyagraha. The objective of the Satyagraha was to secure for untouchables the right to use a road near a temple at Vaikom in Kerala. . In 1925, he started the "Self-Respect Movement". The aims of the 'Self -Respect Movement' were to uplift the Dravidians and to expose the Brahminical tyrany and deceptive methods by which they controlled all spheres of Hindu life. He denounced the caste system and child marriage. He encouraged inter-caste marriages. He himself conducted many marriages without any rituals. Such a marriage was known as "Self- Respect Marriage." . He gave secular names to new born babies.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R. He attacked the laws of Manu, which he called the basis of the entire Hindu social fabric of caste. . He founded the Tamil journals Kudiarasu, Puratchi and Viduthalai to propagate his ideals. . In 1938 at Tamil Nadu Women's Conference appreciatin the noble service e was given the title "Periyar"". rendered by E.V.R. he was given the title "Periyar" . In 1970 by the UNESCO organisation praised and adorned with the title "Socrates of South Asia".