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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1917-1947)
Rowlatt Act (1919) In 1917, a committee was set up under the presidentship of Sir Sydney Rowlatt to look into the militant Nationalist activities. . On the basis of its report the Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919 by the Central Legislative Council. . As per this Act, any person could be arrested on the basis of suspicion. No appeal or petition could be filed against such arrests. This Act was called the Black Act and it was widely opposed. An all-India hartal was organized on 6 April 1919. Meetings were held all over the country. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested near Delhi. Two prominent leaders of Punjab, Dr Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, were arrested in Amritsar.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13 April, 1919) The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place on 13 April 1919 and it remained a turning point in the history of India's freedom movement. . In Punjab, there was an unprecedented support to the Rowlatt Satyagraha. Facing a violent situation, the Government of Punjab handed over the administration to the military authorities under General Dyer. .He banned all public meetings and detained the political leaders. On 13.April, the Baisakhi day (harvest festival), a public meeting was organized at the Jallianwala Bagh (garden). Dyer marched in and without any warning opened fire on the crowd killing a large number of people. There was a nation- wide protest against this massacre and Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood as a protest. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre gave a tremendous impetus to the freedom struggle
Khilafat Movement . The chief cause of the Khilafat Movement was the defeat of Turkey in the First World War. The harsh terms of the Treaty of Sevres (1920) was felt by the Muslims as a great insult to them The whole movement was based on the Muslim belief that the Caliph (the Sultan of Turkey) was the religious head of the Muslims all over the world. . The Muslims in India were upset over the British attitude against Turkey and launched the Khilafat Movement. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saifuddin Kitchlew and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of this movement.
Khilafat Movement A Khilafat Committee had been formed and on 19 October 1919, the whole country had observed the Khilafat day. . On 23 November, a joint conference of the Hindus and the Muslims had also been held under the chairmanship of Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi was particularly interested in bringing the Hindus and the Muslims together to achieve the country's independence. . Subsequently, the Khilafat Movement merged with the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) Mahatma Gandhi announced his plan to begin Non-Cooperation with the government as a sequel to the Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Khilafat Movement. It was approved by the Indian National Congress at the Nagpur session in December, 1920.
NCM Programme .Surrender of titles and honorary positions. Resignation of membership from the local bodies. .Boycott of elections held under the provisions of the 1919 Act Boycott of government functions Boycott of courts, government schools and colleges. Boycott of foreign goods. Establishment of national schools, colleges and private panchayat courts. Popularizing swadeshi goods and khadi
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) The movement began with Mahatma Gandhi renouncing the titles, which were given by the British. Other leaders and influential persons also followed him by surrendering their honorary posts and titles. . Students came out of the government educational institutions. National schools such as the Kashi Vidyapeeth, the Bihar Vidyapeeth and the Jamia Millia Islamia were set up . All the prominent leaders of the country gave up their lucrative legal practice. Legislatures were boycotted. No leader of the Congress came forward to contest the elections for the Legislatures
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) . In 1921, mass demonstrations were held against the Prince of Wales during his tour of India. The government resorted to strong measures of repression Many leaders were arrested. . The Congress and the Khilafat Committees were proclaimed as illegal. At several places, bonfires of foreign clothes were organised. The message of Swadeshi spread everywhere. Most of the households took to weaving cloths with the help of charkhas
Significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement It was the real mass movement with the participation of different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women It witnessed the spread of nationalism to the remote corners of India. . It also marked the height of Hindu-Muslim unity as a result of the merger of Khilafat movement. . It demonstrated the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices.
Swaraj Party The Swaraj Party did several significant things in the Legislative Council It demanded the setting up of responsible government in India with the necessary changes in the Government of India Act of 1919. . The party could pass important resolutions against the repressive laws of the government. . After the passing away of C.R. Das in June 1925, the Swarj Party started weakening
Simon Commission (1927) The report of the Simon Commission was published in May 1930. It was stated that the constitutional experiment with Dyarchy was unsuccessful and in its place the report recommended the establishment of autonomous government. There is no doubt that the Simon Commission's Report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act of 1935
Nehru Report (1928) . In the meanwhile, the Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution that would be acceptable to all The challenge was accepted by the Congress, which convened an al party meeting on 28 February 1928. . A committee consisting of eight was constituted to draw up a blueprint for the future Constitution of India. It was headed by Motilal Nehru. . The Report published by this Committee came to be known as the Nehru Report.
Nehru Report (1928) The Report favoured: Dominion Status as the next immediate step . Full responsible government at the centre . Autonomy to the provinces . Clear cut division of power between the centre and the provinces A bicameral legislature at the centre