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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
lIbert Bill Agitation (1884) Lord Ripon wanted to remove two kinds of law that had been prevalent in India. According to the system of law, a European could be tried only by a European Judge or a European Magistrate. . The disqualification was unjust and it was sought to cast a needless discredit and dishonour upon the Indian-born members of the judiciary. C.P. lbert, Law Member, introduced a bill in 1883 to abolish this discrimination in judiciary. But Europeans opposed this Bill strongly. They even raised a fund of one lakh fifty thousand rupees and established an organisation called the Defence Association. The press in England joined the issue. Hence, Ripon amended the bill to satisfy the English in India and England.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
Educational Reforms . Curzon took a serious view of the fall in the standard of education and discipline in the educational institutions. . In his view the universities had degenerated into factories for producing political revolutionaries. To set the educational system in order, he instituted in 1902, a Universities Commission to go into the entire question of university education in the country. .On the basis of the findings and recommendations of the Commission, Curzon brought in the Indian Universities Act of 1904, which brought all the universities in India under the control of the government.
Police and Military Reforms . He instituted a Police Commission in 1902 under the chairmanship of Sir Andrew Frazer. Curzon accepted all the recommendations and implemented them. . He set up training schools for both the officers and the constables and introduced provincial police service . As for the remodeling of the army, it was by and large done by Lord Kitchener, the Commander-in-Chief in India in Curzon's time.
Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) The Viceroy brought in a new legislative measure namely the Calcutta Corporation Act in 1899 by which the strength of the elected members was reduced and that of the official members increased. . Curzon gave more representations to the English people as against the Indians in the Calcutta Corporation . There was strong resentment by the Indian members against Curzon's anti-people measures.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905) . He passed a law called the Ancient Monuments Act, 1904 which made it obligatory on the part of the government and local authorities to preserve the monuments of archaeological importance and their destruction an offence. The Partition of Bengal into two provinces was effected on 4 July 1905. The new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam included the whole of Assam and the Dacca, Rajshahi and Chittagong divisions of Bengal with headquarters at Dacca. .Though Curzon justified his action on administrative lines, partition divided the Hindus and Muslims in Bengal. This led to the anti-partition agitation all over the country. This had also intensified the National Movement.