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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1916)
Leaders of the Extremists The extremists were led by Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipinchandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh Bal Gangadhar Tilak is regarded as the real founder of the popular anti-British movement in India. He was known as 'Lokamanya' . He attacked the British through his weeklies The Mahratta and the Kesari. He was jailed twice by the British for his nationalist activities and in 1908 deported to Mandalay for six years. . He set up the Home Rule League in 1916 at Poona and declared "Swaraj is my birth-right and I will have it."
Leaders of the Extremists Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as the 'Lion of Punjab'. He played an important role in the Swadeshi Movement. He founded the Indian Home Rule League in the US in 1916. He was deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition. He received fatal injuries while leading a procession against the Simon Commission and died on November 17, 1928. Bipan Chandra Pal began his career as a moderate and turned an extremist. He played an important role in the Swadeshi Movement. He preached nationalism through the nook and corner of Indian by his powerful speeches and writings. Aurobinda Ghosh was another extremist leader and he actively participated in the Swadeshi Movement. He was also imprisoned. After his release he settled in the French territory of Pondicherry and concentrated on spiritual activities.
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism Curzon's real motives for partition of Bengal were: To break the growing strength of Bengali nationalism since Bengal was the base of Indian nationalism To divide the Hindus and Muslims in Bengal. To show the enormous power of the British Government in doing whatever it liked
Partition of Bengal and the Rise of Extremism . On 16 October 1905, when partition came into effect, the people of Bengal orgainsed The whole political life of Bengal underwent a change. The anti-partition movement protest meetings and observed a day of mourning. culminated into the Swadeshi Movement and spread to other parts of India. . The aggressive nationalists forced Dadabhai Naoroji to speak of Swaraj (which was not a Moderate demand) in the Calcutta Session of Congress in 1906. They adopted the resolutions of Boycott and Swadeshi. The Moderate Congressmen were unhappy. Theywanted Swaraj to be achieved through constitutional methods. The differences led to a split in the Congress at the Surat session in 1907. This is popularly known as the famous Surat Split. The extremists came out of the Congress led by Tilak and others.
Swadeshi Movement .The Swadeshi Movement involved programmes like the boycott of government service, courts, schools and colleges and of foreign goods, promotion of Swadeshi goods, Promotion of National Education through the establishment of national schools and colleges. It was both a political and economic movement. . The Swadeshi Movement was a great success. In Bengal, even the landlords joined the movement. The women and students took to picketing. . Students refused using books made of foreign paper.
Swadeshi Movement The government adopted several tough measures. It passed several Acts to crush the movement. The Swadeshi volunteers were beaten badly. The cry of Bande Mataram was forbidden in the movement or else their, aid would be stopped. . Schools and colleges were warned not to allow their students to take part . Some Indian government employees lost their jobs. .Extremist leaders Bala Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh were imprisoned and deported.
Achievements of Extremists They were the first to demand Swaraj as a matter of birth right. . They involved the masses in the freedom struggle and broadened the social base of the National Movement. They were the first to organize an all-India political movement, viz. the Swadeshi Movement.
Formation of the Muslim League (1906) In December 1906, Muslim delegates from all over India met at Dacca for the Muslim Educational Conference. Taking advantage of this occasion, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca proposed the setting up of an organisation to look after the Muslim interests. . The proposal was accepted. The All-India Muslim League was finally set up on December 30, 1906. Like the Indian National Congress, they conducted annual sessions and put their demands to the British government. Initially, they enjoyed the support of the British. . Their first achievement was the separate electorates for the Muslims in the Minto- Morley reforms.
The Home Rule Movement (1916) . Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak at Poona in April 1916 and the other by Mrs. Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. . The aim of the Movement was to get self- government for India within the British Empire. It believed freedom was the natural right of all nations. . Moreover, the leaders of the Home Movement thought that India's resources were not being used for her needs.
Revolutionary Movements . In the first half of the 20th century, revolutionary groups sprang up mainly in Bengal, Maharashtra, Punjab and Madras. The revolutionaries were not satisfied with the methods of both the moderates and extremists. Hence, they started many revolutionary secret organizations . In Bengal Anusilan Samiti and Jugantar were established. In Maharashtra Savarkar brothers had set up Abhinava Bharat. . In the Madras Presidency, Bharathmatha Association was started by Nilakanta Bramachari