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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
About Me . Bachelors and Masters in Physics from Indian Institute of Science (ISc), Bangalore .INSPIRE Scholar, DST Govt. of India Interested in Physics, current affairs, economics.... . Physicist, Blogger, Teacher.... Wrote UPSC CSE Mains 2017 Research Publication in Journal of Applied Physics
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1917-1947)
Advent of Gandhi The third and final phase of the Nationalist Movement (1917-1947) is known as the Gandhian era. During this period Mahatma Gandhi became the undisputed leader of the National Movement. . His principles of non- violence and Satyagraha were employed against the British Government. Gandhi made the nationalist movement a mass movement . He came to back India in 1915 from South Africa.
Advent of Gandhi . Mahatma Gandhi began his experiments with Satyagraha against the oppressive European indigo planters at Champaran in Bihar in 1917. . In the next year he launched another Satyagraha at Kheda in Gujarat in support of the peasants who were not able to pay the land tax due to failure of crops. During this struggle, Sardar Vallabhai Patel emerged as one of the trusted followers of Gandhi. . In 1918, Gandhi undertook a fast unto death for the cause of Ahmedabad Mill Workers and finally the mill owners conceded the just demands of the workers
Rowlatt Act (1919) In 1917, a committee was set up under the presidentship of Sir Sydney Rowlatt to look into the militant Nationalist activities. . On the basis of its report the Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919 by the Central Legislative Council. . As per this Act, any person could be arrested on the basis of suspicion. No appeal or petition could be filed against such arrests. This Act was called the Black Act and it was widely opposed. An all-India hartal was organized on 6 April 1919. Meetings were held all over the country. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested near Delhi. Two prominent leaders of Punjab, Dr Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, were arrested in Amritsar.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13 April, 1919) The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place on 13 April 1919 and it remained a turning point in the history of India's freedom movement. . In Punjab, there was an unprecedented support to the Rowlatt Satyagraha. Facing a violent situation, the Government of Punjab handed over the administration to the military authorities under General Dyer. .He banned all public meetings and detained the political leaders. On 13.April, the Baisakhi day (harvest festival), a public meeting was organized at the Jallianwala Bagh (garden). Dyer marched in and without any warning opened fire on the crowd killing a large number of people. There was a nation- wide protest against this massacre and Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood as a protest. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre gave a tremendous impetus to the freedom struggle
Khilafat Movement . The chief cause of the Khilafat Movement was the defeat of Turkey in the First World War. The harsh terms of the Treaty of Sevres (1920) was felt by the Muslims as a great insult to them The whole movement was based on the Muslim belief that the Caliph (the Sultan of Turkey) was the religious head of the Muslims all over the world. . The Muslims in India were upset over the British attitude against Turkey and launched the Khilafat Movement. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saifuddin Kitchlew and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of this movement.
Khilafat Movement A Khilafat Committee had been formed and on 19 October 1919, the whole country had observed the Khilafat day. . On 23 November, a joint conference of the Hindus and the Muslims had also been held under the chairmanship of Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi was particularly interested in bringing the Hindus and the Muslims together to achieve the country's independence. . Subsequently, the Khilafat Movement merged with the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) Mahatma Gandhi announced his plan to begin Non-Cooperation with the government as a sequel to the Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Khilafat Movement. It was approved by the Indian National Congress at the Nagpur session in December, 1920.
NCM Programme .Surrender of titles and honorary positions. Resignation of membership from the local bodies. .Boycott of elections held under the provisions of the 1919 Act Boycott of government functions Boycott of courts, government schools and colleges. Boycott of foreign goods. Establishment of national schools, colleges and private panchayat courts. Popularizing swadeshi goods and khadi
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) . But the whole movement was abruptly called off on 11 February 1922 by Gandhi following the Churi Chaura incident in the Gorakpur district of U.P. Earlier on 5 February an angry mob set fire to the police station at Churi Chaura and twenty two police men were burnt to death. Many top leaders of the country were stunned at this sudden suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922
Swaraj Party The Swaraj Party did several significant things in the Legislative Council It demanded the setting up of responsible government in India with the necessary changes in the Government of India Act of 1919. . The party could pass important resolutions against the repressive laws of the government. . After the passing away of C.R. Das in June 1925, the Swarj Party started weakening
Simon Commission (1927) . When the Commission reached Bombay, a general hartal was observed all over the country. Everywhere it was greeted with black flags and the cries of Simon go back' At Lahore, the students took out a large anti-Simon Commission demonstration on 30 October 1928 under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. In this demonstration, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge and he passed away after one month.
Simon Commission (1927) The report of the Simon Commission was published in May 1930. It was stated that the constitutional experiment with Dyarchy was unsuccessful and in its place the report recommended the establishment of autonomous government. There is no doubt that the Simon Commission's Report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act of 1935
Nehru Report (1928) . In the meanwhile, the Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution that would be acceptable to all The challenge was accepted by the Congress, which convened an al party meeting on 28 February 1928. . A committee consisting of eight was constituted to draw up a blueprint for the future Constitution of India. It was headed by Motilal Nehru. . The Report published by this Committee came to be known as the Nehru Report.
Round Table Conference The British government adopted the strategy of talking to different political parties by convening the Round Table Conferences. The first Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 at London and it was boycotted it by the Congress. . In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison. On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-lrwin Pact was signed. As per this pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil-Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second- Round Table Conference.
Poona Pact (1932) By 1930, Dr Ambedkar had become a leader of national stature championing the cause of the depressed people of the country While presenting a real picture of the condition of these people in the First Round Table Conference, he had demanded separate electorates for them. .On 16 August 1932 the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement, which came to be as the Communal Award. According to this award, the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them. Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
The Second World War and National Movement In 1937 elections were held under the provisions of the Government of India Act of 1935. Congress Ministries were formed in seven states of India. . On 1 September 1939 the Second World War broke out. The British Government without consulting the people of India involved the country in the war. . The Congress vehemently opposed it and as a mark of protest the Congress Ministries in the Provinces resigned on 12 December 1939. . The Muslim League celebrated that day as the Deliverance Day. In March 1940 the Muslim League demanded the creation of Pakistan
Individual Satyagraha . During the course of the Second World War in order to secure the cooperation of the Indians, the British Government made an announcement on 8 August 1940, which came to be known as the 'August Offer' . The August Offer envisaged that after the War a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution. Gandhi was not satisfied with is offer and decided to launch Individual Satyagraha . Individual Satyagraha was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature and it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to choose the Satyagrahis. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months
Cripps Mission (1942) The main recommendations of Cripps were: . The promise of Dominion Status to India . Protection of minorities Setting up of a Constituent Assembly in which there would be representatives from the Princely States along with those of the British Provinces, . There would be provision for any Province of British India not prepared to accept this Constitution, either to retain its present constitutional position or frame a constitution of its own.