Siva Prasad is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS
Muslim Reform Movements The Muslim reform movements started a little later because they had avoided western education in the beginning. . The first effort was in 1863 when the Muhammad Literary Society was set up in Calcutta. Its aim was to popularise the study of English and western sciences. It established a number of schools in Bengal.
Aligarh Movement The Aligarh Movement was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan for the social and educational advancement of the Muslims in India . He fought against the medieval backwardness and advocated a rational approach towards religion. . In 1866, he started the Mohammadan Educational Conference as a general forum for spreading liberal ideas among the Muslims. I . n 1875, he founded a modern school at Aligarh to promote English education among the Muslims. This had later grown into the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College and then into the Aligarh Muslim University.
The Deoband School . The orthodox section among the Muslim ulema organised the Deoband Moovement. It was a revivalist movement whose twin objectives were: (a) to propagate among the Muslims the pure teachings of the Koran and the Hadis and (b) to keep alive the spirit of jihad aganist the foreign rulers. . The new Deoband leader Mahmud-ul-Hasan sought to impart a political and intellectual content to the religious ideas of the school
Sikh Reform Movement Punjab also came under the spell of reforms. Baba Dayal Das founded the Nirankari Movement. He insisted the worship of God as nirankar (formless) The Namdhari Movement was founded by Baba Ram Singh. His followers wore white clothes and gave up meat eating. The Singh Sabhas started in Lahore and Amritsar in 1870 were aimed at reforming the Sikh society. They helped to set up the Khalsa College at Amritsar in 1892.They also encouraged Gurmukhi and Punjabi literature. In 1920, the Akalis started a movement to remove the corrupt Mahants (priests) from the Sikh gurudwaras.
Parsi Reform Movement The Parsi Religious Reform Association was founded at Bombay by Furdunji Naoroji and S.S. Bengalee in 1851 They advocated the spread of women's education. They also wanted to reform their marriage customs. Naoroji published a monthly journal, Jagat Mithra. The momentum gathered through these reform movements and went a long way in uplifting the entire community.
Saint Ramalinga Saint Ramalinga was one of the foremost saints of Tamil Nadu in the nineteenth century . In 1865 he founded the Samarasa Suddha Sanmargha Sangha for the promotion of his ideals of establishing a casteless society. . He preached love and compassion to the people. He composed Tiru Arutpa. His other literay works include Manu Murai Kanda Vasagam and Jeeva Karunyam . His language was so simple as to enable the illiterate people to understand his teachings . He also started constructing the Satya Gnana Sabai in 1872. He introduced the principle that God could be worshipped in the form of Light.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R. . Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy was a great social reformer. In 1921, during the anti-liquor campaign he cut down 1000 coconut trees in his own farm. . In 1924, he took an active part in the Vaikam Satyagraha. The objective of the Satyagraha was to secure for untouchables the right to use a road near a temple at Vaikom in Kerala. . In 1925, he started the "Self-Respect Movement". The aims of the 'Self -Respect Movement' were to uplift the Dravidians and to expose the Brahminical tyrany and deceptive methods by which they controlled all spheres of Hindu life. He denounced the caste system and child marriage. He encouraged inter-caste marriages. He himself conducted many marriages without any rituals. Such a marriage was known as "Self- Respect Marriage." . He gave secular names to new born babies.
Self-Respect Movement and Periyar E.V.R. He attacked the laws of Manu, which he called the basis of the entire Hindu social fabric of caste. . He founded the Tamil journals Kudiarasu, Puratchi and Viduthalai to propagate his ideals. . In 1938 at Tamil Nadu Women's Conference appreciatin the noble service e was given the title "Periyar"". rendered by E.V.R. he was given the title "Periyar" . In 1970 by the UNESCO organisation praised and adorned with the title "Socrates of South Asia".