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TN Textbook Class XIl History SIVA PRASAD
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1885-1905)
Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India Political Unity - For the first time, most of the regions in India were united politically and administratively under a single power (the British rule). It introduced a uniform system of law and government. Development of Communication and Transport railways, telegraph and postal services English Language and Western Education- The English educated Indians, who led the national movement, developed Indian nationalism and organised it. Western education facilitated the spread of the concepts of liberty, equality, freedom and nationalism and sowed the seeds of nationalism The Role of the Press
Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India . Social and Religious Movements of the Nineteenth Century Economic Exploitation by the British Racial Discrimination . Administration of Lytton- Lord Lytton arranged the Delhi Durbar at a time when the larger part of India was in the grip of famine. He passed the Vernacular Press Act which curbed the liberty of the Indian Press. His Arms Act was a means to prevent the Indians from keeping arms. All these measures created widespread discontent among the Indians. . The llbert Bill controversy
The Indian National Congress (1885) . Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant in the British Government took the initiative to form an all-India organization. Thus, the Indian National Congress was founded and its first session was held at Bombay in 1885. . W.C. Banerjee was its first president. It was attended by 72 delegates from all over India. . Persons attending the session belonged to different religious faiths. They discussed the problems of all the Indians irrespective of their religion, caste, language and regions. . Thus Indian National Congress from the start was an all-India secular movement
Three phases of Indian national movement The phase of moderate nationalism (1885-1905) when the Congress continued to be loyal to the British crown. The years 1906-1916 witnessed- Swadeshi Movement, rise of militant nationalism and the Home Rule Movement. . The period from 1917 to1947 is known as the Gandhian era.
Moderate Nationalism . The leading figures during the first phase of the National Movement were A.O. Hume, W.C. Banerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji, Justice Ranade and G.Subramanya Aiyar . Between 1885 and 1905, the Congress leaders were moderates. The Moderates had faith in the British justice and goodwill. They were called moderates because they adopted peaceful and constitutional means to achieve their demands.
Main Demands of Moderates .Expansion and reform of legislative councils. Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India . Separation of the judiciary from the executive. . More powers for the local bodies. Reduction of land revenue and protection of peasants from unjust landlords.
Main Demands of Moderates . Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty. .Reduction of spending on army. . Freedom of speech and expression and freedom to form associations
Methods of Moderates . The Moderates had total faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They were loyal to the British. They looked to England for inspiration and guidance. . The Moderates used petitions, resolutions, meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memorandum and delegations to present their demands. They confined their political activities to the educated classes only. Their aim was to attain political rights and self-government stage by stage.
Achievements of Moderates . Some Moderates like Ranade and Gokhale favoured social reforms. They protested against child marriage and widowhood. The Moderates had succeeded in getting the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.