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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS from THE HINDU 12th September 2017 By Jatin Verma Educator Unacademy
Page-10: Toilets first, temples later: PM Paying tributes to Swami Vivekananda on the anniversary of his speech at the World Congress of Religions in Chicago, Prime Minister juxtaposed it with the 9/11 terror attack in the U.S., saying the World Trade Center tragedy would not have taken place had the d of the speech been understood. The Prime Minister was speaking at a function attended by student groups in Vigyan Bhavan here to mark the anniversary of Vivekananda's speech in Chicago in 1893. GSM-1: World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. Q. Critically analyse the functioning of SBM on the completion of Q. Is Indian cinema Reactive or Proactive?
Swacchh Bharat Mission: [Source: HT] Construction Stats: Since 2014, 40 million household toilets have been constructed. Between May I and May 21, 2017, 489,710 individual household latrines were constructed across the country.That's an average of nearly 25,000 toilets constructed per day. Usually, an ODF village, declaration is made by the village or gram panchayat. The state government is supposed to carry out a first verification within three months, and a second verification around six months after the self-declaration. Gap b/w Declaration & Verification : Gram panchayats have self-declared 193,081 villages to be ODE but 53.9% of these have not been verified, according to the Ministry of DrinkingWater and Sanitation, which is responsible for Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin, which accounts for 85% of SBM's budget. Villages are considered 'open defecation-free' when no faeces are openly visible and every household and public/community institution uses safe technology to dispose of faeces in such a way that there is no contamination of surface soil, groundwater or surface water; excreta is inaccessible to flies or animals, with no manual handling of excreta;and there are no odour and unsightly conditions
Toilet Built Vs.Toilet used:[Output budget Vs. Outcome Budget] National Family Health Survey 4 Data: As of 2016, 36.7% of rural households and 70.3% of urban households-48.4% of households overall-used improved sanitation facility, data from the National Family Health Survey 4,which was conducted between January 2015 and December 20 16, show. A majority, 5 1 .6%, did not. Improved sanitation facility means having a system that separates human excreta from human contact which includes piped sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine, etc. A study by Research Institute for Compassionate Economics : About 47% of those who defecated in the open said they did so because it was pleasant, convenient and comfortable, a 2014 survey of 3,200 households in five states with the highest rates of open defecation found Among households that had built a toilet, 40% had at least one family member defecating in the open Reasons behind poor statistics: Swachh Bharat Mission has to focus more on behaviour change and promoting toilet use, rather than building latrines. Indians' preference for open defecation has to do with the practice of untouchability and beliefs about purity, according to this 2017 study by the same institute.
Solution > What is already being done needs to be done in a better way: Information, education and communication needed: Since the focus of Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin is on behaviour change, the guidelines require that 8% of the funds be allocated for information, education and communication (IEC) activities. During the 2016-17 financial year, 1% of the total expenditure had been made on IEC up to January 2017, according to Accountability Initiative's budget brief. In contrast, 98% of the funds had been spent on construction of toilets in individual households. Duplicate entries, ghost beneficiaries and missing households were the first stumbling block that researchers from the Accountability Initiative of the Centre for Policy Research faced while tracking beneficiaries of the government's sanitation interventions across 7,500 households in 10 districts and five states in a December 2015 study. [Solution: Aadhar, GPS technology being used-Geo Tagging is already being done] Social Audit: Eventually, they studied 1,500 households that they could identify from the list. They found that a third of the households that government records showed as having achieved "sanitation status" actually had toilets, while 36% that had constructed toilets said these were unusable Of the households with a toilet which had at least one member of the family defecating in the open, the most common reasons cited were absence of water and the pit being too small.
My Suggestion: It is good that in the first phase, rapid toilet construction has taken place, in the coming years, we can institutionalise Behavioural changes as well. [Analogy- Digital Bankingl In any case, Behavioural changes are hard to come by. Having said that, water supply should precede Toilet construction. Independent monitoring While Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin guidelines clearly envisage a yearly,country-wide, independent third-party assessment of the sanitation status of rural areas, there has been no independent monitoring so far. The World Bank, which had promised a loan of $1.5 billion for Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin- the rural arm of the mission, has not released the first instalment which was due in July 2016 because India has not fulfilled the condition of conducting and announcing results of an independent verification survey. It has rated the overall implementation progress of the Programme as moderately unsatisfactory."
Page-10: Can't we work on Saturdays, says CJl . Judicial Backlog:Justice Delayed is justice denied Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra has written to the Chief Justices of the High Courts to explore the possibility of constituting special Benches on Saturdays to hear criminal and jail appeals in which legal aid has been provided. He pointed out that some of the Chief Justices of the High Courts had already agreed to go ahead with the project from September 9.The High Courts of Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Patna, Jharkhand and Karnataka had constituted special Benches to hear these appeals on Saturdays Delay in disposal of these appeals raises questions about the efficacy of the administration of justice as a whole and the criminal justice system in particular.
Page-11: No plan yet to deport Rohingya, says MoS Home Responding to UN official's statement, Minister says States have been asked only to identify 'illegal immigrants and act as per procedure. Mr. Rijju said that India gave"utmost importance to humanitarian concerns and has always accepted refugees". India most humane, . He was reacting to United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein's statement that India cannot carry out collective expulsions, or return People to a place where they risk torture or other serious violations" Mr. Rijiju, while reacting to Mr. Hussein's statement, said, "But the UN and other international organisations do not understand the internal security or national security problems of India. India has been the most humane nation and we have asked the State governments to initiate action as per the established procedure.
World News Page 12: A textbook example of ethnic cleansing: UN rights head. The situation in Myanmar is a"textbook example of ethnic cleansing", the United Nations rights chief said, as the number of Rohingya Muslims fleeing the country for Bangladesh topped 3,00,000. Dalai Lama's appeal: Dalai Lama had joined fellow Nobel peace laureates Malala Yousafzai and Archbishop Desmond Tutu in urging Ms. Suu Kyi to intervene. . Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina will visit the Myanmar-Bangladesh border to express her concern at the situation. Dhaka has also urged the international community to come up with urgent humanitarian assistance and put pressure on Myanmar to solve the crisis.
Page-1l: India to further aid Afghan troops. Afghanistan-IndiaPartnership Council meeting i] India agreed to enhance existing assistance to Afghan security forces, including in capacity building and training of Afghan soldiers in India. Tii] New scholarships: It announced 500 new scholarships for children and kin of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces (ANDSF) to honour their sacrifices "for the cause of entire humanity" and ensuring the safety of Indians working in Afghanistan. . Afghanistan hopes also that India, as a good friend of other countries in the region like Russia and Iran, can convince those countries to work with the Afghan government to support the peace process in Afghanistan. It was second such meeting since the Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) was signed in 2011, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj said the strategic relationship is an "article of faith".
World News 12: Irma's Cuba toll touches 10 Downgraded from a hurricane to a tropical storm, Irma flooded several north- ern Florida cities with heavy rain and high storm surge on Monday as it headed out of the State after cutting power to millions and ripping roofs off homes. e The Cuban government reported that 10 people had been killed after Irma battered the island's north coast Northern Europe Eastern Europe Western Europe Central Asia Eastern Asia North America Southern Europe Northern Africa Western Asia Southern Asia Caribbean Central America Western Africa Micronesia Southeastern Asia Middle Africa Eastern Africa Polynesia South America Melanesia Southern Africa Australia nd New Zealand
Business Page 13: lio wants TRAI to act against Bharti Airtel. The term 'interconnection' refers to an arrangement under which telecom players connect their equipment, networks and services with other Telecom Services Providers. The regulator,TRAI, addresses the various issues related to interconnection arrangements. It also regulates the IUC This is a charge payable by a service provider, whose subscriber originates the call, to the service provider in whose network the call terminates. In a calling-party pays regime (CPP), if you originate a call, you pay your access provider, who in turn pays termination charges to the network you placed the call.This is paid to cover the network usage costs as the operator, on whose network the call terminates, carries the call on its network to the customers. This requires infrastructure investment.Thus, IUC ensures operators make appropriate investments to carry voice calls without terminations. Why is it important? The incumbent players such as Bharti Airtel, ldea and Vodafone would prefer a hike in IUC or a status quo because a significant part of their network is still on 2G for which network costs are higher.Also most of the calls terminate on these companies' networks. But the new entrant, Jio, would prefer lower or even nil termination charges as the number of calls originated by it are more than the calls terminated.TRAl is considering bringing down termination charges due to cost efficiency due to the adoption of 4G technology