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DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS from THE HINDU 12th September 2017 By Jatin Verma Educator Unacademy
Page 1+10: Parties call for Hybrid poll system, The Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice is deliberating on electoral reforms in the aftermath of UP election results. The objective is to have a more direct relationship between vote % and seats% from the Party List system. The Congress, NCP, the CPI (Marxist) and CPI have told that the existing first-past-the-post- system needs to be replaced with a hybrid format where elections for a small number of seats are through Proportional representation What facts and figures say? In the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections held in March this year where the BjP which got 39 per cent of the vote share but won 312 seats, while the Samajwadi Party with 21.8 per cent votes got 47 seats and the Bahujan Samaj Party with 22.2 per cent got 19 seats. In 2009 elections BIP had 18.1% vote but l 16 seats in the Lok Sabha, while, in the last general elections the Congress got 19.35% votes but only 44 seats. Parties together polling almost 50% of the votes are totally excluded. An interesting fact is that no ruling party had ever got 51 per cent of the votes polled. "Minority democracy" has been ruling the country since indepen
Four Systems of Elections being discussed by the Committee: i] FPTP [ii] Proportional Representation ii] Hybrid System [iv] Dual System Recommendations of the Law Commission's 170th and 255th report: A mix of both first-past-the-post and proportional representation should be tried. Both the reports have suggested that 25% or 136 more seats should be added to the present Lok Sabha and be filled by Proportional Representation Q. which one of the following countries are 75 per cent of seats in both Houses of Parliament filled oh the basis of first-past-the-post system and 25 per cent on the basis of Proportional Representation system? [UPSC-1997] A. Germany B. France C. Canada D. Russia
Explanation l. First Past the Post System: Whosoever gets the highest number of votes is declared elected. Remember, we are saying highest number of votes, not majority(51%) of votes. 2. Proportional Representation: Seats in the House are distributed on the basis of vote share of a Political Party. It characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. -If 20% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly 20% of seats will be won by that party. If 28% of the electorate support a particular party, then 28% seats. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result, not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them 3. Hybrid System: Hybrid system having both proportional representation and first-past-the-post should be followed. 4. Dual S seats being won under FPTP rules, and another vote for a party, with the remainder of the seats in the Parliament being filled. In this, voters are often asked to choose a party and the representatives are elected on the basis of party lists. As a result, there is no one representative who represents and ystem: In strict sense, voters have one vote for a candidate in their constituency, with
Arguments in Favour of ProportionalReperesentrtng reflectedin electon results. [i] Majority aspirations and the actual will of the people is not getting reflected in election results. [ii]First-past-the-post system had worked well in the beginning because there was one party, the Indian National Congress [ii] The voting percentage was also very high. But now because of a division of votes, a party with even 20% share does not get a single seat, while a party with 28% can get disproportionately large number of seats. iv]Whoever gets elected does not truly represent the majority aspirations. And a true democracy cannot exit without reflection of a majority aspirations. [v] Such a hybrid system will also ensure that more women find place in state assemblies and Lok Sabha. Arguments against Proportional Representation: [i]Proportional represenation will promote interest groups. [ii] It will be Communally divisive
Why did India adopt the FPTP system? I. Proportional Representation is a complicated system which may work in a small country, but would be difficult to work in a sub-continental country like India. 2. Simplicity of FPTP: FPTP election system is extremely simple to understand even for common voters who may have no specialised 3.Voters have to simply endorse a candidate or a party while voting. Depending on the nature of actual politics, voters may either give greater importance to the party or to the candidate or balance the two. 4.The FPTP system offers voters a choice not simply between parties but specific candidates. In other electoral systems, especially. In constituency based system like the FPTP, the voters know who their own representative is and can hold him or her accountable. 5. FPTP is compatible with Parliamentary System: This system requires that the executive has majority in the legislature. PR system may not produce a clear majority because seats in the legislature would be divided on the basis of share of votes. It generally gives the largest party or coalition some extra bonus seats, more than their share of votes would allow.Thus this system makes it possible for parliamentary government to function smoothly and effectively by facilitating the formation of a stable government.
6. Communally non-divisive: FPTP system encourages voters from different social groups to come together to win an election in a locality. In a diverse country like India, a PR system would encourage each community to form its own nation-wide party. The experience of the working of the Constitution has confirmed the expectation of the constitution makers. The system has also discouraged political parties that get all their votes only from one caste or community.
Comparison of FPTP and PR system of election FPT PR The country is divided into small geographical units called constituencies or districts Large geographical areas are demarcated as constituencies. The entire country may be a single constituency Every constituency elects one representative More than one representative may be elected from one constituency Voter votes for the party Voter votes for a candidate A party may get more seats than votes in the legislature Every party gets seats in the legislature in proportion to the percentage of votes that it gets Candidate who wins the election may not get majority (50%+1) votes Candidate who wins the elections gets majority of votes Examples: U.K., India Examples: Israel, Netherlands
Page-l:Aviation, Home Ministries spar over regulating drones. [GSM-2: Ministries & Departments; Regulatory issues- Inter-Ministerial Coordination] Tussle between aircraft safety versus security and privacy Recently, the Home Ministry circulated a draft law to regulate the low flying objects, for inter- ministerial consultations. The regulations were circulated more than a year after the DGCA put out draft guidelines for obtaining unique identification numbers for citizens to use drones in the public domain. Safety oversight-Need? [i]The need for a new law arose after it received representations from a couple of industrial houses who wanted to use UAVs to monitor oil pipelines and coalfields. [ii] Last month, operations at the IGl airport in Delhi were held up for two hours after an Air Asia pilot spotted a low flying object while landing Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) has raised a few objections over the Home Ministry's bid to frame a new law to regulate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), loosely referred to as drones. . The Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) has told the Home Ministry that licensing and safety of all aircraft-manned or unmannedwas their domain.
MoCA's version: i] As per International Civil Aviation Organisation guidelines, aircraft, whether manned or unmanned, does not affect its status as an aircraft and the safety oversight is the responsibility of DGCA Ministry of Home Affairs version:The DGCA has the capacity to detect aircraft of a particular size and which fly at a certain altitude. It has radars to detect their presence.The unmanned objects, if they fly low, cannot be detected by any radar. It has security and privacy issues. . What if a UAV is out of control and crashes into a police station or somebody's house. To address these issues we need to know who owns a UAV, of what make and in which areas it could be operated . In April 2016, the DGCA had proposed detailed guidelines for civilian use of drones. . The DGCA had proposed that drone users would have to obtain its permission and get a unique identification number for each drone. The user was also required to get security clearance from the Bureau of Civil Aviation and all drone operations over 200 feet would require the DGCA's nod . However, the MHA had raised some objections to DGCA's draft, saying anti-UAV technology to detect and neutralise the threats from a hostile drone is also required
Page-l: Centre will respect J&K's special status, says Home Minister. Centre would not go against the sentiments of the people on Article 35A, which granted special rights to locals on property and jobs
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