Jatin Verma is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS from THE HINDU 12th September 2017 By Jatin Verma Educator Unacademy
Page 1+10: Parties call for Hybrid poll system, The Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice is deliberating on electoral reforms in the aftermath of UP election results. The objective is to have a more direct relationship between vote % and seats% from the Party List system. The Congress, NCP, the CPI (Marxist) and CPI have told that the existing first-past-the-post- system needs to be replaced with a hybrid format where elections for a small number of seats are through Proportional representation What facts and figures say? In the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections held in March this year where the BjP which got 39 per cent of the vote share but won 312 seats, while the Samajwadi Party with 21.8 per cent votes got 47 seats and the Bahujan Samaj Party with 22.2 per cent got 19 seats. In 2009 elections BIP had 18.1% vote but l 16 seats in the Lok Sabha, while, in the last general elections the Congress got 19.35% votes but only 44 seats. Parties together polling almost 50% of the votes are totally excluded. An interesting fact is that no ruling party had ever got 51 per cent of the votes polled. "Minority democracy" has been ruling the country since indepen
Four Systems of Elections being discussed by the Committee: i] FPTP [ii] Proportional Representation ii] Hybrid System [iv] Dual System Recommendations of the Law Commission's 170th and 255th report: A mix of both first-past-the-post and proportional representation should be tried. Both the reports have suggested that 25% or 136 more seats should be added to the present Lok Sabha and be filled by Proportional Representation Q. which one of the following countries are 75 per cent of seats in both Houses of Parliament filled oh the basis of first-past-the-post system and 25 per cent on the basis of Proportional Representation system? [UPSC-1997] A. Germany B. France C. Canada D. Russia
Explanation l. First Past the Post System: Whosoever gets the highest number of votes is declared elected. Remember, we are saying highest number of votes, not majority(51%) of votes. 2. Proportional Representation: Seats in the House are distributed on the basis of vote share of a Political Party. It characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. -If 20% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly 20% of seats will be won by that party. If 28% of the electorate support a particular party, then 28% seats. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result, not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them 3. Hybrid System: Hybrid system having both proportional representation and first-past-the-post should be followed. 4. Dual S seats being won under FPTP rules, and another vote for a party, with the remainder of the seats in the Parliament being filled. In this, voters are often asked to choose a party and the representatives are elected on the basis of party lists. As a result, there is no one representative who represents and ystem: In strict sense, voters have one vote for a candidate in their constituency, with
Arguments in Favour of ProportionalReperesentrtng reflectedin electon results. [i] Majority aspirations and the actual will of the people is not getting reflected in election results. [ii]First-past-the-post system had worked well in the beginning because there was one party, the Indian National Congress [ii] The voting percentage was also very high. But now because of a division of votes, a party with even 20% share does not get a single seat, while a party with 28% can get disproportionately large number of seats. iv]Whoever gets elected does not truly represent the majority aspirations. And a true democracy cannot exit without reflection of a majority aspirations. [v] Such a hybrid system will also ensure that more women find place in state assemblies and Lok Sabha. Arguments against Proportional Representation: [i]Proportional represenation will promote interest groups. [ii] It will be Communally divisive
Why did India adopt the FPTP system? I. Proportional Representation is a complicated system which may work in a small country, but would be difficult to work in a sub-continental country like India. 2. Simplicity of FPTP: FPTP election system is extremely simple to understand even for common voters who may have no specialised 3.Voters have to simply endorse a candidate or a party while voting. Depending on the nature of actual politics, voters may either give greater importance to the party or to the candidate or balance the two. 4.The FPTP system offers voters a choice not simply between parties but specific candidates. In other electoral systems, especially. In constituency based system like the FPTP, the voters know who their own representative is and can hold him or her accountable. 5. FPTP is compatible with Parliamentary System: This system requires that the executive has majority in the legislature. PR system may not produce a clear majority because seats in the legislature would be divided on the basis of share of votes. It generally gives the largest party or coalition some extra bonus seats, more than their share of votes would allow.Thus this system makes it possible for parliamentary government to function smoothly and effectively by facilitating the formation of a stable government.
6. Communally non-divisive: FPTP system encourages voters from different social groups to come together to win an election in a locality. In a diverse country like India, a PR system would encourage each community to form its own nation-wide party. The experience of the working of the Constitution has confirmed the expectation of the constitution makers. The system has also discouraged political parties that get all their votes only from one caste or community.
Comparison of FPTP and PR system of election FPT PR The country is divided into small geographical units called constituencies or districts Large geographical areas are demarcated as constituencies. The entire country may be a single constituency Every constituency elects one representative More than one representative may be elected from one constituency Voter votes for the party Voter votes for a candidate A party may get more seats than votes in the legislature Every party gets seats in the legislature in proportion to the percentage of votes that it gets Candidate who wins the election may not get majority (50%+1) votes Candidate who wins the elections gets majority of votes Examples: U.K., India Examples: Israel, Netherlands
Page-l:Aviation, Home Ministries spar over regulating drones. [GSM-2: Ministries & Departments; Regulatory issues- Inter-Ministerial Coordination] Tussle between aircraft safety versus security and privacy Recently, the Home Ministry circulated a draft law to regulate the low flying objects, for inter- ministerial consultations. The regulations were circulated more than a year after the DGCA put out draft guidelines for obtaining unique identification numbers for citizens to use drones in the public domain. Safety oversight-Need? [i]The need for a new law arose after it received representations from a couple of industrial houses who wanted to use UAVs to monitor oil pipelines and coalfields. [ii] Last month, operations at the IGl airport in Delhi were held up for two hours after an Air Asia pilot spotted a low flying object while landing Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA) has raised a few objections over the Home Ministry's bid to frame a new law to regulate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), loosely referred to as drones. . The Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) has told the Home Ministry that licensing and safety of all aircraft-manned or unmannedwas their domain.
MoCA's version: i] As per International Civil Aviation Organisation guidelines, aircraft, whether manned or unmanned, does not affect its status as an aircraft and the safety oversight is the responsibility of DGCA Ministry of Home Affairs version:The DGCA has the capacity to detect aircraft of a particular size and which fly at a certain altitude. It has radars to detect their presence.The unmanned objects, if they fly low, cannot be detected by any radar. It has security and privacy issues. . What if a UAV is out of control and crashes into a police station or somebody's house. To address these issues we need to know who owns a UAV, of what make and in which areas it could be operated . In April 2016, the DGCA had proposed detailed guidelines for civilian use of drones. . The DGCA had proposed that drone users would have to obtain its permission and get a unique identification number for each drone. The user was also required to get security clearance from the Bureau of Civil Aviation and all drone operations over 200 feet would require the DGCA's nod . However, the MHA had raised some objections to DGCA's draft, saying anti-UAV technology to detect and neutralise the threats from a hostile drone is also required
Page-l: 7 MPs under I-T lens for disproportionate assets [GSM-284: Probity in Public Life] Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) informed the Supreme Court that ninety-eight MLAs and seven Lok Sabha members are under investigation for prima facie discrepancy between their assets and declared sources of income. The CBDT affidavit said the investigative arm of the Income Tax Department has found that the assets of these lawmakers are disproportionate to their known sources of income. Supreme Court's role in ensuring Probity in Public Life: The affidavit was filed after the court made stinging remarks about how the government machinery was not very forthcoming when it came to revealing details of the mercurial increase in the assets of politicians and lawmakers. NGO Lok Prahari. The NGO said the assets of the politicians in the list had seen a disproportionate growth, of up to 500%, from the time of nomination in the last election. The CBDT said it received responses from the Directors-General of Income Tax on the assets of 26 Lok Sabha members, 215 MLAs and two Rajya Sabha members in the list.
Page-l: Centre will respect J&K's special status, says Home Minister. Centre would not go against the sentiments of the people on Article 35A, which granted special rights to locals on property and jobs
Swacchh Bharat Mission: [Source: HT] Construction Stats: Since 2014, 40 million household toilets have been constructed. Between May I and May 21, 2017, 489,710 individual household latrines were constructed across the country.That's an average of nearly 25,000 toilets constructed per day. Usually, an ODF village, declaration is made by the village or gram panchayat. The state government is supposed to carry out a first verification within three months, and a second verification around six months after the self-declaration. Gap b/w Declaration & Verification : Gram panchayats have self-declared 193,081 villages to be ODE but 53.9% of these have not been verified, according to the Ministry of DrinkingWater and Sanitation, which is responsible for Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin, which accounts for 85% of SBM's budget. Villages are considered 'open defecation-free' when no faeces are openly visible and every household and public/community institution uses safe technology to dispose of faeces in such a way that there is no contamination of surface soil, groundwater or surface water; excreta is inaccessible to flies or animals, with no manual handling of excreta;and there are no odour and unsightly conditions
My Suggestion: It is good that in the first phase, rapid toilet construction has taken place, in the coming years, we can institutionalise Behavioural changes as well. [Analogy- Digital Bankingl In any case, Behavioural changes are hard to come by. Having said that, water supply should precede Toilet construction. Independent monitoring While Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin guidelines clearly envisage a yearly,country-wide, independent third-party assessment of the sanitation status of rural areas, there has been no independent monitoring so far. The World Bank, which had promised a loan of $1.5 billion for Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin- the rural arm of the mission, has not released the first instalment which was due in July 2016 because India has not fulfilled the condition of conducting and announcing results of an independent verification survey. It has rated the overall implementation progress of the Programme as moderately unsatisfactory."
World News Page 12: A textbook example of ethnic cleansing: UN rights head. The situation in Myanmar is a"textbook example of ethnic cleansing", the United Nations rights chief said, as the number of Rohingya Muslims fleeing the country for Bangladesh topped 3,00,000. Dalai Lama's appeal: Dalai Lama had joined fellow Nobel peace laureates Malala Yousafzai and Archbishop Desmond Tutu in urging Ms. Suu Kyi to intervene. . Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina will visit the Myanmar-Bangladesh border to express her concern at the situation. Dhaka has also urged the international community to come up with urgent humanitarian assistance and put pressure on Myanmar to solve the crisis.
Page-1l: India to further aid Afghan troops. Afghanistan-IndiaPartnership Council meeting i] India agreed to enhance existing assistance to Afghan security forces, including in capacity building and training of Afghan soldiers in India. Tii] New scholarships: It announced 500 new scholarships for children and kin of the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces (ANDSF) to honour their sacrifices "for the cause of entire humanity" and ensuring the safety of Indians working in Afghanistan. . Afghanistan hopes also that India, as a good friend of other countries in the region like Russia and Iran, can convince those countries to work with the Afghan government to support the peace process in Afghanistan. It was second such meeting since the Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) was signed in 2011, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj said the strategic relationship is an "article of faith".
Page-Il: Firm signal on bullet train proiect- India-lapan Relations This will be the fourth annual summit between two Countries Prime Minister and his Japanese counterpart, Shinzo Abe, wil lay the groundwork for the next level of collaboration during the annual summit meeting to be held in Gandhinagar. Range of issues to be discussed: [i] Joint inauguration of the Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed rail project using Japanese Shinkansen technology. on security issues, especially on North Korea and China. under the framework of their 'Special Strategic and Global Partnership' and will set its [ii] Bilateral security dialogue: Focus of Mr.Abe's visit is likely to be the bilateral discussion [i i Review the recent progress in the multifaceted cooperation between India and Japan future direction [iv]Training institute: Through a video-link, they will participate in the ground-breaking ceremony of the High Speed Railway Training Institute to be set up in Vadodara. Analysis: India-Japan ties are at a crucial phase in a range of areas, including defence and security. In their annual defence dialogue last week, the two countries had resolved to collaborate closely in defence production, including on dual-use technologies. Our Prime Minister had visited Japan in November 2016 Both sides had decided to ramp up bilateral defence and security cooperation during the visit.
Business Page 13: lio wants TRAI to act against Bharti Airtel. The term 'interconnection' refers to an arrangement under which telecom players connect their equipment, networks and services with other Telecom Services Providers. The regulator,TRAI, addresses the various issues related to interconnection arrangements. It also regulates the IUC This is a charge payable by a service provider, whose subscriber originates the call, to the service provider in whose network the call terminates. In a calling-party pays regime (CPP), if you originate a call, you pay your access provider, who in turn pays termination charges to the network you placed the call.This is paid to cover the network usage costs as the operator, on whose network the call terminates, carries the call on its network to the customers. This requires infrastructure investment.Thus, IUC ensures operators make appropriate investments to carry voice calls without terminations. Why is it important? The incumbent players such as Bharti Airtel, ldea and Vodafone would prefer a hike in IUC or a status quo because a significant part of their network is still on 2G for which network costs are higher.Also most of the calls terminate on these companies' networks. But the new entrant, Jio, would prefer lower or even nil termination charges as the number of calls originated by it are more than the calls terminated.TRAl is considering bringing down termination charges due to cost efficiency due to the adoption of 4G technology