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Religious and Social Reform Movements - 3 (in Hindi)
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Chapter 2 part-3

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Aartee Mishra
Delhi University Topper Post Graduation in History YouTube & Telegram Channel - Rank secure. Successfully Taught 40 GS Batches/ Motivator

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  1. Daily Lecture Series Spectrum's A brief history of Modern India Religious and Social Reform Movements- Part C Hindi By Aartee Mishra

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  3. I am Aartee Mishra Graduated from Delhi University, Topper in all my semesters, Pursuing P.G and preparing for CSE. You can find all my courses at na AsO by Downloading the Unacademy Learning app from the Google Playstore

  4. In Maharashtra, Jyotiba Phule, born in a low caste Mali family, led a movement against the brahrninical domination of Hindu society. He accorded the highest priority to education of lower castes, especially girls for whom he opened several schools. Babasaheb Ainbedkar, who had experienced the worst form of casteist discrimination during his childhood, fought against upper caste tyranny throughout his life. He organized the All India Scheduled Castes Federation, while several other leaders of the depressed classes founded the All India Depressed Classes Association The struggle of the depressed classes was rewarded with special representation for these classes in the Government of India Act, 1935 e 1920s in South India, the non-brahmins organized the Self- Respect Movement led by E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. There were numerous other movements demanding lifting of ban on entry of lower castes into temples; for instance Sri Narayana Guru in Kerala led a lifelong struggle against upper caste domination. He coined the slogan "one religion, one caste, one God, for mankind which his disciple Sahadaran Ayyapan changed into "no religion, no caste, no God for mankind"

  5. Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahmo Samaj Raja Rammohan Roy, the father of Indian Renaissance. He wrote Gi to Monotheists (1809) and translated into Bengali the Vedas an five Upanishads to prove his conviction that ancient Hindu texts support monotheism. In 1814, he set up Atmiya Sabha in Calcuttat campaign against idolatry, caste rigidities, meaningless rituals and other social ills He started his anti-sati struggle in 1818 and he cited sacred texts to prove his contention that no religion sanctioned the burning alive of widows, besides appealing to humanity, reason and compassion 1825, he established a Vedanta college where courses in both Indian learning and Western social and physical sciences were offered. He also helped enrich the Bengali language by compiling a Bengali grammar book and evolving a modern elegant prose style Roy condemned oppressive practices of Bengali zamindars and demanded fixation of maximum rents. He also demanded abolition of taxes on taxfree lands. He called for a reduction Of export duties orn goods abroad and abolition of the East India Company's trading rights

  6. Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahn o Samai Raja Rammohan Roy founded the Brahmo Sabha in August 1828; it was later renamed, Brahmo Samaj. Prayers, meditation of the Upanishads were to be the forms of worship The long-term agenda of the Brahmo Samaj-to purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism-was based on the twin pillars of reason and the Vedas and Upanishads The Samaj also tried to incorporate teachings of other religions and kept its emphasis on human dignity, opposition to idolatry and criticism of social evils such as sati Roy's progressive ideas met with strong opposition from orthodox elements like Raja Radhakant Deb who organized the Dharma Sabha to counter Brahmo Samaj propaganda The Bramho Samaj experienced another phase of energy, vigour and eloquence when Keshub Chandra Sen was made the acharyct by Debendranath Tagore soon after the former joined the Samaj in 1858 bandra Sen was dismissed from the office of acharya in 1865. Keshub and his followers founded the Brahmo Samaj of India in 1866, while Debendranath Tagore's Sarnaj came to be known as the Adi Brahmo Samaj

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