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Daily Lecture Series Spectrum's A brief history of Modern India Religious and Social Reform Movements- Part A Hindi By Aartee Mishra
I am Aartee Mishra Graduated from Delhi University, Topper in all my semesters, Pursuing P.G and preparing for CSE. You can find all my courses at na AsO by Downloading the Unacademy Learning app from the Google Playstore
Religious and Social Reform Movements The impact of modern Western culture and consciousness of defeat by a foreign power gave birth to a new awakening There was an awareness that a vast country like India had been colonised by a handful of foreigners because of internal weaknesses within the Indian social structure and culture Social Base The social base of this quest was the newly emerging middle class and traditionally as well as western educated intellectuals Ideological Base The important intellectual criteria which gave these reform movements an ideological unity were rationalism, religious universalism and humanism Brahmo Samaj the repudiation of the infallibility of the Vedas was the result, while the Aligarh movement emphasised reconciliation of Islamic teachings with the needs of the modern age. Syed Ahmed Khan went to the extent of emphasising that religious tenets were not immutable
Religious and Social Reform Movements The evolution of an alternative cultural ideological system and the regeneration of traditional institutions emerged as twin concerns of these movements These reform movements could broadly be classified in two categories reformist movements like the Brahmo Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj, the Aligarh movement, and the revivalist movements like Arya Samaj and the Deoband movement Both the reformist and revivalist movements depended, with varying degrees, on an appeal to the lost, purity of the religion they sought to reform. The only difference between one refornm movement and the other lay in the degree to which it relied on tradition or on reason and conscience 500 INDIA HUSAIN AHMAD MADANI www.miigazette.com
SOCIAL REFORM The social reform movements formed an integral part of the religious reforms primarily because nearly all the effort towards social ills like untouchability and gender-based inequity derived legitimacy from religion in one way or the other To reach the masses, propaganda in Indian languages was the modus operandi of the reformers who used a variety of media such as novels, dramas, poetry, short stories, the press and, in the 1930s and later on, the cinema to spread their views The social reform movements had a two point agenda-fight for betterment of status of women in society and fight to remove disabilities arising out of untouchability
Fight for Betterment of Position of Women The Hindu women had no right to inherit property or to terminate an undesirable marriage. The Muslim women could inherit but only half as much as men could, while in matters of divorce there was no equality between men and women. Polygamy was prevalent among Hindus as well as Muslims They raised their voice against degrading customs such as polygamy, purdah, child marriage, restrictions on widovw remarriage, and worked relentlessly to establish educational facilities for women, to persuade the Government to enact favourable legislations for women and in general to propagate giving up of medieval, feudal attitudes Abolition of Sati Influenced by the frontal attack launched by the enlightened Indian reformers led by Raja Rammohan Roy, the Government declared the practice of sad or the burning alive of widows illegal and punishable by criminal courts as culpable homicide. The regulation of 1829 was applicable in the first instance to Bengal Presidency alone, but was extended in slightly modified forms to Madras and Bombay Presidencies in 1830.
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