Aartee Mishra is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Daily Lecture Series Spectrum's A brief history of Modern Indiaisha unacademy By Aartee National Movement-1919-1939 Era of Mass Nationalism Movement Part A Hindi
I am Aartee Mishra Graduated from Delhi University, Topper in all my semesters, Pursuing P.G and preparing for CSE. You can find all my courses at https://unacademy.com/user/ranianmishra2011 Also by Downloading the Unacaderny Learning app from the Google Playstore
WHY NATIONALIST RESURGENCE NOW nd a the international scene Post-War Economic Hardships All Indians were experiencing hardships on various fronts Nationalist Disillusionment with Imperialism Worldwide The Allied powers, to rally the colonies to their side during the war, had promised them an era of democracy Impact of Russian Revolution (November 7, 1917) The Bolshevik Party of workers overthrew the Czarist regime and founded the first socialist state, the Soviet Union, under the leadership of V.I. Lenin The October Revolution brought home the message that immense power lay with the people and the masses were capable of challenging the mightiest of tyrants provided they were organized, united and determined
MONTAGU-CHELMSFORD REFORMS AND GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1919 Provincial Government-Introduction of Dyarchy 1) Executive : Dyarchy, i.e., rule of two-executive councilors and popular ministers was introduced. The governor was to be the executive head in the province 2) Subjects were divided into two lists: "reserved" which included subjects such as law and order, finance, land revenue, irrigation, etc., and "transferred" subjects such as education, health, local government, industry, agriculture, excise, etc 3) The "reserved" subjects were to be administered by the governor through his executive council of bureaucrats, and the "transferred" subjects were to be administered by ministers nominated from among the elected members of the legislative council 4) The ministers were to be responsible to the legislature and had to resign if a no-confidence motion was passed against them by the legislature, while the executive councilors were not to be responsible to the legislature In case of failure of constitutional machinery in the province the governor could take over the administration of "transferred" subjects also 5) 6) The secretary of state and the governor-general could interfere in respect of "reserved" subjects while in respect of the "transferred" subjects, the scope for their interference was restricted
MONTAGU-CHELMSFORD REFORMS AND GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1919 Legislature elected Provincial Government-Introduction of Dyarchy 1) Provincial Legislative Councils were further expanded-70% of the members were to be 2) The system of communal and class electorates was further consolidated 3) Women were also given the right to vote 4) The Legislative Councils could initiate legislation but the governor's assent was required. The governor could veto bills and issue ordinances 5) The Legislative Councils could reject the budget but the governor could restore it, if necessary 6) The legislators enjoyed freedom of speech
MONTAGU-CHELMSFORD REFORMS AND GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1919 Central Government-Still Without Responsible Government Executive 1) The governor-general was to be the chief executive authority 2) There were to be two lists for administration-central and provincial 3) In the viceroy's executive council of 8, three were to be Indians 4) The governor-general retained full control over the "reserved" subjects in the provinces 5) The governor-general could restore cuts in grants, certify bills rejected by the Central Legislature and issue ordinances Legislature 1) A bicameral arrangement was introduced 2) The Council of State had a tenure of 5 years and had only male members, while the Central Legislative Assembly had a tenure of 3 years 3) The legislators could ask questions and supplementaries, pass adjournment motions and vote a part of the budget, but 75% of the budget was still not votable.
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