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Daily Lecture Series Spectrum's A brief history of unacadeny Modern India By Aartee Mishra Administrative Changes after 1857 Part D Hindi
PRINCELY STATES Relations with princely states were to be guided by a two point policy-- Il. subordinating them completely to British authority (the policy of subordinate To cultivate these states as a buffer against future political unrest and to using and perpetuating them as bulwark of the empire union) reward them for their loyalty during the revolt of 1857, the policy of annexation was abandoned. The new policy was to depose or punish but not annex Also, territorial integrity of states was guaranteed and it was announced that their right to adopt an heir would be respected. The subordination of princely states to British authority was completed when the fiction of Indian states standing in a status of equality with the Crown as independent, sovereign states ended with the Queen adopting the title of Kaiseri-i-Hind (Queen Empress of India) in 1876, to emphasise British sovereignty over entire India
PRINCELY STATES It was later made clear by Lord Curzon that the princes ruled their states merely as agents of the British Crown. With paramountcy, the British Government exercised the right to interfere in the internal affairs of states through their residents or by appointing and dismissing ministers and officials The British were helped further in their encroachment by modern developments in communication-railways, roads, telegraph, canals, post offices, etc The motive for interference was also provided by the rise of nationalist, democratic sentiments in these states, the suppression of which, the British realised, was essential for their survival ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES Contrary to their pre-1857 intentions of trying to modernize India on progressive lines, now the administration adopted blatantly reactionary policies on the pretext that Indians were not fit for self-governance and needed British presence Divide and Rule British rulers in India decided to practice a naked policy of divide and rule, by putting princes against states' people, region against region, province against province, caste against caste and Hindus against Muslims.
Hostility to Educated Indians The emerging middle class nationalist leadership was analyzing the exploitative, colonial character of British rule and demanding Indian participation in administration At a time when the nationalist movement was born (Indian National Congress was founded in 1885), the British interpreted the moves as a challenge to their authority and adopted a hostile attitude to such leadership In fact, from then onwards, they opposed all those who stood for moderrn educatiorn Attitude towards the Zamindars: Now, the zamindars and landlords were hailed as the 'natural' and 'traditional leaders of people. Lands of most of the Awadh taluqclars confiscated prior to 1857 were restored to them The interests and privileges of zamindars and landlords were protected in opposition to those of the peasants; the former in turn saw the British as guarantors of their very existence and became their firm supporters
NCERT Class 6-12 Summary of All the Subjects Prelims & Mains Subjects Covered Aartee Mishr Polity: Governance, Society, Public Administration Geography: Indian and World Geography, All Important Maps, Physical and Political Features, Disaster Management History: Ancient, Medieval, Modern with Art & Culture Economics: Basic Concepts, Understanding Economic Development Science: Important Chapters of Environment and Ecology Course Starting from, 25th July 9:30pm-10:30pm on Unacademy Plus
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