Now let us chronologically understand India's Nepal Policy
Overview of our Nepal's policy . 1950's three pillars of nepali politics MONARCH/RANA-RULING DEMOCRATS PM KING King TribhuvanNot popular Nepali Congress- was held captive by Rana India entered close relations into Treaty of Peace and Friendship with him with INC but ppl nad sympathy for in
1950's India entered into Treaty of Peace and Friendship (TPF) with Rana A 1 -everlasting peace and friendship, acknowledge sovereignty, territorial integrity etc. .A 5 - govt. of Nepal is free to import arms, ammunitions or warlike material from India only. A 6 - National treatment to citizens of each other. . A 7 - Privileges wrt to ownership of property, participation in trade and commerce.
1. Issues in TPF .Rana was not popular so ppl saw that as India legitimising the rule of Rana . Signing issue- PM Rana signed with our Ambassador ego hurt . Nepali congress projected this as Rana's compromise . Later King Tribhuvan came to New Delhi = > India supported his claims hence we played a role in shift from monarchy to Constitutional monarcny + Parliamentary democracy and Rana monarchy Parliamentary democracy and Rana rule ended
OUTCOME . Nepal became Constitutional monarchy and Parliamentary democracy. Our policy was ambiguous( sometimes favouring Rana, the King etc.) and often contradictory In short our "3 pillared policy failed"
1960-1990 Situation King Tribhuvan was succeeded by King Mahendra Mahendra was not satisfied with const. monarchy . He was apprehensive of India- India at this time was supporting Nepali Congress, hence he started propaganda against Nepali Congress Ended Parliamentary democracy and estb Panchayati Raj => no actual devolution Started using China Card, started becoming cosy with China
China Card 1960-1990 Started importing arms from China - violation of treaty . China was allowed to build road from Kodari pass to Kathmandu Later King Brirendra proposed the idea of Nepal as "ZONE OF PEACE"- this was opposed by India. . why ==> as per TPF, with countries will help each other in the event of war. . Also Indian forces would use Nepali forces command areas for support But ZONE OF PEACE meant Nepal as "neutral state"; which was against the TPF.
TRADE AND TRANSIT AGREEMENT ISSUE Nepal wanted a separate Trade and Transit treaty but India instead on a single treaty. Nepal accused India of using Transit as bargaining chip to get undue advantage. 1978-Janta Govt. accepted the Nepalese demand But Transit issue became a spoiler when Rajiv Gandhi decided not to renew the Transit treaty which had expired in 1989 to teach Nepal a lesson Nepal argued that under UN charter "Transit privileges" were fundamental and permanent right of land locked country. 60 13
BORDER DISPUTE India Nepal share more than 1800 kms of border. 26 adjacent districts, but most politicised dispute is KALAPANI in Dhar Chula District. 37000 acres of land which Indian forces are occupying since 1962 This is en route to "Kailash Mansarovar" . Saugali treaty by Britishers made Kali river as the western border of Nepal - today it is the source of this river that is debated.
China India's claim GunjiIndian Check Post epal's claim piyadhura Lipu Lekh ince 1962 Kalapani amp avi Today 1816 border ? Chhangaru kali riverSita Pul India Nepal Darchula Kalapani lssue Solution: Broker a deal and may accept that it is Nepali territory but get it on perpetual lease
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