Nehru's Non Alignment It was answer to the dilemma he and nation faced at that time. Even George Washington after independence had said: "a new republic should cultivate just and amicable feelings towards all nations." C0 . So it Nehru's intellectual struggle against Bi- polar Worid order. C Raja Mohan: "It was India's effort to carve out a niche for itself."
What Nehru meant by NA? alliances (NATO vs Warsaw Pact) It did not mean neutrality in world politics .Neutrality is relevant in times of war. . Not getting entangled with any of the military NA meant "no a priori" commitment to support one or other nation in times of crisis * It was Nehru's attempt to prevent India from becoming a theatre of cold war.
Other IFP measures during Nehru Importance to United Nations => Kashmir issue to UN. Rather the issue got entangled in Cold War (Pak + USA vs Soviet)> Pak raises it now and then in UN UNSC instead of declaring Pak as aggressor kept the issue as an instrument for pressuring India politically . Dulles, USA's foreign secretary - "NA as immoral" and failure to take decision by Indian establishment. Intimate relations with commonwealth => buy security for India without entailing into alliance.
IFP-Tilt in NA All this lead to tilt in NA towards- Soviet voted for India when USA and UK voted for Pak . 1956 Hungarian Crisis- Soviet military intervention - India voted against the resolution asking Soviet to call back forces . Nehru defended the stand=> if India would have supported the resolution asking for UN supervised elections in Hungary, Similar demands would nave been askea for in Kashmir
Nehru's- Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai Peace and friendship was cornerstone of India's foreign policy. . Resolve territorial disputes through political negotiations. . 1951- Sino-Tibetan agreement was thrusted upon the Tibetans by Chinese. 1954- China's claim over Tibet conceded when we signed agreement of trade with "Tibetan region of China."
Nehru's blunder in Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai To pacify the Chinese we removed all our military, postal, commercial, telephonic and telegraphic services from northern border. . Nehru gave Panchsheel: Mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty Non aggression . Non interference in domestic matters Equality and Peaceful coexistence
China and Panchsheel It was an attempt to hide India's inability to oppose Chinese expansionist designs. . China had no intention of abiding by the agreement. It was evident from build up of military detachments in Aksai-Chin area Construction of border roads wishing Indian territories along SINKiang border. Chinese maps showing NEFA (in 1972 became Arunachal Pradesh
Benefits of Nehru's FP developing world program-> tool of IFP --> SAARC satellite, ITEC .NA allowed India to take leadership role in the . His investment in Sciences-=> India's space etc. . Vision of India's role in the Global World politics still guides our FP. . His attempts at Panchsheel etc. were based on the realisation that Indian forces were no match with Chinese forces at that time
Drawbacks of Nehru's FP . Nehru's idealistic faith in fairness of UN(Kashmir question) Late realisation that it was "military strength" that enhances ability to negotiate political settlements India gave up it's right in Tibet without gaining any reciprocal concessions India gave up it's right in Tibet
Could have exercised flexibility in NA in defence on India'a NI (could have asked for US help which was anti China during 1962 . His reliance on "doctrine of (0 1 defence by friendship" vis a vis China was idealistic
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