2001 crisis in Nepal . Palace conspiracy, 2001 King Gyanendra came to power after assassination of King Birendra . Gyanendra started "concentrating power" and L0 gave us a hard time Then from 1996 there was JAN ANDOLAN -1 till 2006 . Challenging situation for India as King was giving hard time; democrats were internally divided; Maoist were Anti India
India's solution post 2001 crisis India followed a "pragmatic approach" and brokered a peace deal btw Maoist and NC. . this was called the Comprehensive Peace agreement 12 POINT agreement - transformation to "New Nepal" i.e a federal, democratic republic Nepal.
CONSTITUTIONAL CRISIS IN NEPAL 2008- 1st CA 4 extensions not able to make constitution. 2013 - 2nd Consti Assm deadline was draft to be ready by 22 Jan, 2015+ then 6 months for public opinion and then pass.
Contentious issues W why Questions with regards to Maoist integration was late settled in 2012 Conditionality of consensus and it was understood as unanimity. Issue of proportional representation
Contentious issues Issue with regards to federal structure(MOST IMP). lssues with regards to power of Judiciary (Maoist - Jud. accountable to Parli. ) Issue as to form of Govt.- presidential, parliamentary or semi presidential. CA worked more as interim govt and their was issue of power brokering, corruption etc.
Ethnic groups - Nepal Yadav Koga% other 327% Muslibr9% 42% unspecified 28% Newar 4% amang Chhettri 15.5% 55% Tharu Brahman-Hill 12.5% 6.6% Magar 7% these are power elites created by mecometer.com Data Source: CIA - The World Factbook Ethnic makeup of Nepal
ISSUE OF FEDERATION Proposed 6 states of Nepa THARUS HUMLA hill elites- Bahun Chetris or Khas people BAITADI DOLPA ACHHA ISTANG DAILEH JAJARKOT RUKUM SALYANROLPA TrS PYUTHAN GULMi suuM sTANAHU terai region- fertile MADHESI'S KHOTANGBOPUR TERHAT DHANKUTA YAPUR 80 84 B4 85
Madhesis adnesis .Hindi/ Bhojpuri/ Maithili speaking ppl Terai is a narrow strip of land btw Shiwaliks & Ganga Plain- fertile good productivity. Terai 50% GDP, 40% popup citizens by naturalisations (controversy) Mahant Thakur; Terai Madhes Loktantrik Party
Tharus indigenous ppl of Nepal - near Uttarakhand Tharus speak variants of Hindi/ Urdu and Awadhi Tharu were already living in the Terai before Indo- Europeans arrived
Issues with regards to federalism 1. Whether it should be federal? 1. has been centrally governed every since its formation hence conservative elements oppose 2. basis of federalism ethnic basis - Madhesis want on ethnic lines hence demand for "EK MADHES, EK PRADESH" But hill elites want to preserve their powers hence they demand "economically and administratively feasible provinces China wants North-South provinces - easier to deal with Tibetan refugee problem if traditional hill elites are in power India - Nepal should decide on its own, but make sure their law and order does not spill over in our states
In the next Part we Will see the strategic importance of Nepal and Compare constitutions of India and Nepal
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