INDIA-CHINA RELATIONS PRESENTED BY: AADITYA MISHRA
Collection: International Relations me: . Graduation from NIT, Bhopal- 2015 Wrote Mains Pdf of this lesson is available at ISSUU.COM (ink in the description below) Follow me: https://unacademy.in/user/ AadityaMishra . RATE, REVIEW & RECOMMEND Contribute if this helps you.
MoscOw SILK ROAD ECONOMIC BELT ROTTERDAM BREST DUISBURG ASTANA VENICE ALMA URUMQI ISTANBUL SAMARKAND TASHKENT LANZHOUANIN BEIJING ASHGABAT PIRAEUS IANJI TEHRAN XIANSHANGHA KUNMIN GWADAR FUZHOU MANDALAY KOLKATA HAI PHONG MARITIME SILK ROAD COLOMBO SINGAPORE MOMBASA OBOR-CHINA's CHARM OFFENSIVE
MAGNITUDE OF OBOFR Korean scholar Jae Ho Chung, when completed, the OBOR will include 60 countries, with two-thirds of the world's population, 55% of the global GDP and 75% of global energy reserves. It will consist of 900 infrastructure projects, valued at about $1.3 trillion. Much of the funding is expected to come from Chinese banks, financial institutions and special funds
OBOR . The Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) is the continental dimension of this geo-strategic realm. It consists of a network of rail routes, overland highways, oil and gas pipelines and other infrastructural projects, stretching from Xian in Central China, through Central Asia and Russia to Venice The Maritime Silk Road (MSR) is the maritime dimension and consists of a network of ports and other coastal infrastructure from China's eastern seaboard stretching across South East Asia, South Asia, the Gulf, East Africa and the Mediterranean, embracing Greece and Venice and ending at Rotterdam. . The OBOR project also includes a Digital Silk Road and a Silk Road in Cyber Space. There is a proposal for a cooperative Internet plus Plan which would link the OBOR countries to a super fast broadband network. . With 58 countries involved along the "One Belt and One Road", it accounts for the economic aggregation of SUS 21 trillion, with share in the global trade 29 per cent.
Geostrategic dimension 1. Counter India's strategic advantage in the Indian Ocean Region (IOF) 2. Long term projects- would help in estb. Dependency Counter Pivot to Asia of USA, Remove the Choke (malacca dilemma) as alternate ports including Gwadar etc to Indian Ocean 5. Energy and Trade security by reducing dependency on Middle east and connectivity through Central Asian Rep ublics Economic dimension Industry overcapacity, increasing labour cost so wants to shift manufacturing outside 2. Exports for maintaining its own growth, new normal of its economy which is 3. balanced regional development as it would lead to development of less developed 4. 16000 km distance reduced to Gulf and Africa so better for trade and economic services sector development, regions like Xinjiang, Yunnan etc. ties.
Why should India join the OBOR? Isolationism would not help us and India's own capabilities are not at par with that of China India also gets access to 'prospective markets' in areas like CAR, European markets, Africa etc. Convergence with projects like "Make in India" & Sagarmala" can be accelerate with OBOR and India can seek Chinese investments for our infrastructural projects. India by being a part of the project can also influence the rules and the dimensions of the project. Spice route, Project Mausam etc. can be collaborated with OBOR so as to be more effective BCIM if becomes of part of OBOR can help in developing of our North East and also effective agent in furthering India's Act east policy.
Probable impact on India Economic trade diversion, economic manifestation of string of pearls and the economic threat' of low cost Chinese goods 'swamping the Indian hinterland Strategic Increased military presence in backyard as China would then move it's security forces to protect its establishments & Security considerations related to China's presence in the BCIM which traverses India's sensitive Northeast Geopolitical. Pok CPEC de-facto recognition to Pok; railway link in CPEC can mobilise forces;
What should India do ?? S. Jaishankar has articulated India's position in the following whether we will build our connectivity through "consultative processes" or more unilateral" decision:s Our preference is for the former and the record bears this out quite clearly Wherever that option is on the table, as most recently it did in the AllB, we have responded positively But we cannot be impervious to the reality that others may see connectivity as an exercise in hard-wiring that influences choices. This should be discouraged, because particularly in the absence' of an 'agreed security architecture" in Asia, it could give rise to unnecessary competitiveness Connectivity should diffuse national rivalries, not add to regional tensions.
India should move ahead in the following manner Global level promote rule based and customary law bound architecture (see in ref to South China Sea) Regional level connectivity through Chabahar port and Zaranj Delram Highway, INSTC. Act East policy through Kaladan Mutlimodal project. Thailand trilateral highway etc. x Formulate an open, transparent and inclusive security architecture in loR (PM Modi's visit to Seychelles, Sri Lanka etc) India can counter China's economic ingression with the help of other regional powers like Japan and South Korea. India can collaborate with Japan's Partnership for Quality Infrastructure (POI) in Asia. Promote regional economic integration through establishing FTA's with ASEAN, LAC, African countries, CAR.
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