FACTORS WHICH FORM INDIA'S FOREIGN POLICY
Geography GEOGRAPHY: India is in unique position at the head of Indian Ocean(l.O.) close to "arc of energy" - W.Asia, C. Asia etc . close to "arc of energy" part of "arc of growth" - China and S. E Asia . close to "arc of instability" - W.Asia, Af-Pak region
7500+ coastline- issues of security Attacks through sea 15000 km land boundary Pak (Army with a state), Aggressive Chine ( Malacca Dilemma), Myanmar (ULFA insurgents), Nepal( porous border) . Nearness to "Golden Crescent" and (0 "Golden triangle"
Geography Future role: "India's region of influence will be from Eastern Africa to Pacific. Net security provider in the region. Recent emphasis on "BLUE ECONOMY" by Modi. Hence emphasis on "Blue water" navy L0 . Project Sagarmala - improving port infrastructure . Project export in India's trade policy 2015-20- Chabahar port @ Iran. Countering China's green water navy invasion through Project Mausam etc
Security 4 types of security * External security Human security (security of Indian diaspora, migration issues) Energy security- (CAR's, TAPI, HEP Bhutan etc. Food security- WTO negotiations, subsidies etc
Military Strength . Negotiating with the enemy -> This was weakness during Nehru hence less effective political solutions. Protecting out interests = 1971 war, Kargil 1999 etc. . 4th largest military establishment . Indigenisation needed so that "self reliance'
. Technology and Capital for production here=> FDI in defence Diversification of our defence suppliers. . USA and lsrael preference over Russia because of better and more sophisticated weapons of USA.
Economic development- post 1991 this has been the guiding factor . We need FDI, Fll and more integration with the global economy Globalisation is seen as opportunity to increase the outreach India looks the expansion and diversification of foreign trade . Efforts @ IMF, WB, NDB, CRA etc. so that we can get a better deal . WTO negotiations and India's emphasis on both adaptation and mitigation @ Climate change negotiations
Indian Diaspora Twin purpose of events like Madison Square etc. Outreach to diaspora Gets the message to the local political leaders about the importance of the dignitary. . Gets the message to the local political leaders Why Diaspora? Remittances, NRI equity investments. Goodwill - Africa, West Asia- Oman etc. . Recent steps like e-visa, merging PIO, OCI etc.
National Philosophy India's commitment to world peace, anti-colonialisrm opposition to racism, commitment to democracy, secularism and peaceful co-existence etc. are certain philosophical values that emerged during the freedom movement. . During the British rule India considerably developed relations with other countries to improve world peace and freedom and condemned colonialism and racial discrimination.
Changes in IFP .Shifting of emphasis from political diplomacy to economic diplomacy e.g. China border dispute on back burner. Change from third wordliness as leader of the South towards "enlightened self interest" 13 countries and people help each other but ultimately all further their own interest. . Shift from Idealism to Realism to Intensively Pragmatic Foreign Policy (centred on India's economic interest) . Consensus to shift from socialist to Modern capitalist system.
Recent Foreign policy steps .Neighbourhood 1st. invitation SAARC leaders for swearing in ceremony most countries in neighbourhood visited by PM * Bangladesh land boundary agreement. Sub Regional elements BBIM MVA land bridge btw India and SL. Look East to Act East (will be covered in future lectures)
. Cancelled talks with EU over BTIA when they blocked generic drugs. Following pragmatism when required Khobragade issue was neglected after few hints. Cultural Diplomacy Buddhism, Buddhist circuits in India and Ramayana trail in SL China participating in Nalanda University Promoting Yoga, Bollywood and Indian culture.
Promoting People2 People . e-visa to 114 countries .Leave Travel Concessions to Nepal, Bhutan etc. .Project Mausam Cricket Diplomacy- calling country heads before World Cup, India- Pak series to be . Effectively linking past and future with creative diplomacy PM mentioned about the sacrifices of Indian soldiers in WW1 and WW2 in Canada and Australia.
Govt. not accepting unreasonable demands of state govt.(TN and SL policy) Outreach to Diaspora Madison Square, silicon valley, Dubai etc. Importance for brain gain and leverage to improve relations High power diplomacy Visit of PM, FM, EAM, Defence chiefs etc. Countries were chosen with strategic interests Visit to countries bordering China Small countries with geo-strategic interests in Pacific
5 TOOLS OF STATECRAFT TO further ProActive foreign policy 1. Narratives: sacrifice of Indian soldiers in WW1 & WW2; IPKF 2. Lexicon and imagery: look east to "act east"; 1st response in humanitarian crisis in Yemen and Nepal 3. Soft Power: Cultural, bollywood, religious tourism etc. Please go and watch Shashi Tharoor's video on India's soft power on youtube
4. Realising importance of Indian diaspora. 5. Linking foreign policy and economic development: finance, energy and technology India is ready to utilise 3D's : Democracy, Demography and Demand
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