What to read? India Bangladesh LAND BOUNDARY AGREEMENT .illegal migration, illegal trade, drugs and human trafficking . current state of relations and issues involved Teesta Water sharing agreement . Importance of Bangladesh for India. . Internal politics of Bangladesh- Battle of Begums and India. . Assessment of our foreign policy.
Importance of Bangladesh 1. Internal Security 2003-08 BNP + Jamat allowed anti India activities, sheltered NE separatists, ISl operated freely, ISl used "open and porous border for fake currency, drugs smuggling 2008 whnen Awami Leaque came to power separatists camp closed, terror camps raided. llegal cattle trade @borders, human trafficking etc. issue of undemarcated border (6.1km)(now solved with LBA) .Open n porous border, riverine border (changes seasonally) and Enclaves- no police action was possible, refugees used it as hulb for illegal activities, excuse for migration etc. (now solved with LBA)
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2. lllegal Migrants Issue who is llegal migrant?-> Sec 2(b) of Ctzn Amnd Act, 2003 illegal migrant" means a foreigner who has entered into India- (i) without a valid passport or other travel documents and such other document or authority as may be prescribed by or under any law in that behalf; or (ii) with a valid passport or other travel documents and such other document or authority as may be prescribed by or under any law in that behalf but remains therein beyond the permitted period of time
2. Illegal Migrants Issue . History Goes pre independence -Nawab of Assam initiated "Grow More Food Campaign" after Bengal famine and attack over Burma by Japanese (Burma was 15% rise provider for East India at that time) During civil war in East Pak => persecution threats faced by Hindu's - cause for India's involvement in 1971 war . Most affected states are: Tripura, Assam and WB. Tripura has faced "demographic inversion" - now tribals are a minority.
2. Illegal Migrants Issue . Porous border and racial similarity makes it more complex Irrationally drawn border-Radcliffe line-correction done in LBA - pragmatic approach - discussed ahead . Lack of coop from Bangladeshi security forces - no night duty from their side, involvement in dalali Push factors => poverty, unemployment, natural disasters, water scarcity, power shortages etc. Pull factors => prospects of better life in India, Indian factory owners also find it lucrative etc.
2. Illegal Migrants Issue .AH Mahmood Ali (foreign minister statement 2014) : "llegal migrant issue did not come up in the talks with EAM Mrs. Swaraj" This is core issue: "Bangladesh's long standing policy has been denying claims of any illegal migration" . So when the other side doesn't even recognise the problem solving it bilaterally becomes a problem. Amb Veena Sikri: When it is not discussed in Joint Commissions it becomes a topic of political rallies in WB & Assam (clashes btw Bengali locals and Muslims) Minorities are threatened in Bangladesh (1970's-20% Hindu's, now <10 % Hindus.)
Impact of lllegal Migration Political Violence in NE main reason why AASU( all Assam Students Union) led the Assam movement popular movement against undocumented immigrants in Assam. The movement, led by All Assam Students Union (AASU) and the 'All Assam Gana Sangram Parishad' (AAGSP), developed a program of protests and demonstration to compel the government to identify and expel illegal immigrants. The agitation programs were largely non- violent, but the Nellie massacre was a case of extreme violence. The agitation program ended in August 1985 following the Assam Accord, which was signed by leaders of AASU-AAGSP and the Government of India.
WHAT IS NATIONAL REGISTER OF CITIZENS (NRC)? The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is the register containing details of all Indian citizens. Citizenship being a subject of the Union List, policy decisions, guidelines and funds for NRC updation are provided by the Central Government but its implementation is done through the State Government machinery under the guidance of the Reaistrar General of India who functions as the Registrar General of Citizen Registration. 1ST TIME IN => After conducting the Census of 1951, the National Register of Citizens (NRC) was prepared by recording particulars of all the persons enumerated during the 1951 Census WHAT IS NRC 1951? After the conduct of the Census of 1951, a National Register of Citizens (NRC) was prepared in respect of each village showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein, and in respect of each individual, the father's name/mother's name or husband's name, nationality, sex, age, marital status, educational qualification, means of livelihood or occupation and visible identification mark. This was done by copying out in registers the particulars recorded during the Census done in 1951 This NRC was prepared under a directive from the Ministry of Home affairs (MHA) These registers covered each and every person enumerated during the Census of 1951 and were kept in the offices of Deputy Commissioners and Sub Divisional Officers according to instructions issued by the Government of India in 1951. Later these registers were transferred to the Police in the early 1960s
2. Illegal Migrants lssue- What should be done Issue of enclaves, adverse possession, undemarcated borders etc. have been dealt with in LBA . Border areas to be developed as "areas of prosperity" through use of Border haats etc. Practical solution can be Isuing "work permits' to . Practical solution can be" Issuing "work permits" to migrants . help in regularising and regulating the movement . would also help in protecting their rights agst exploitation. . India can have similar provisions like we have with Nepal and Sri Lanka.
In the next part we would discuss Teesta water sharing issue and Transit agreement
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