What to read? India Bangladesh LAND BOUNDARY AGREEMENT .illegal migration, illegal trade, drugs and human trafficking . current state of relations and issues involved Teesta Water sharing agreement . Importance of Bangladesh for India. . Internal politics of Bangladesh- Battle of Begums and India. . Assessment of our foreign policy.
Water Sharing 54 transnational rivers btw India and Bangladesh. .Bangladesh being lower riparian state has concerns regarding India's HEP in upper river streams. Only 1 agreement till date : Ganga water sharing agreement 1996 .Bangladesh objected to const of Farakka Barrage to maintain Calcutta port and to address the needs of city industries. .Bangladesh took the issue in UNGA in 1976 .1996- 30 yrs agreement was signed by Awami League but was opposed by BNP as per the agreement 1. During lean seasons (Jan- May) distribution of water will be 50:50 if flow is < 70k cusecs 2. if > 70k cusecs then India will get 40k cusecs and rest Bangladesh.
Water Sharing India, Nepal and Bangladesh may jointly undertake projects for development and management of hydro- power and water resources which would help augment the dry season flows, generate huge hydro-power, improve regional navigation, increase fish production, restore fragile environment of the Ganges basin, improve water quality etc. . MoU was signed on blue economy and maritime cooperation in the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean
Teesta water sharing . 1983 Ad-hoc agreement on Teesta water sharing reached for 75% of Teesta water. (remaining 25% is to be done) Who gets how much? Water share from Teesta India 39% Bangladesh 36% Unallocated 25% 1984: Joint-river commission appointed to collect hydrological data & suggest a rational method for water sharing e Commission recommended increasing Bangladesh's share, on logic that W.Bengal's barrage is very close to Bangladesh border (~90 km). Some water will penetrate underground and benefit both countries anyways.
Teesta water sharing . Other facts are Total length of Teesta in India-71 % and in Bangladesh 29% . Catchment area: 83% (ind) and 17% (Bang) Bangladesh is already getting its due share. . The govt of WB is having reservations about sharing renaming water.
WHY BENGAL NEEDS TEESTA THE ISSUE Rambhi I Prime Mini ter Sheikh Hasina can convince her people that India has given them a fair deal in the Teesta water dispute, it will be a big An NHPC dam coming up here. Water is the lifeblood of these hydel projects Gangtok Kalijhora SIKKIM NHPC building another dam here ea But Mamata Banerjee -among the five chief ministers originally scheduled to accompany Singh, she is the only one affected by the Teesta treaty has to take Bengal's interests into account Gajoldoba The barrage in Jalpaiguri releases water into the Teesta river entering Bangladesh and into the Teesta Main Canal e Kalimpong Darjeeling Teesta Canal THE DEAL According to a tentative deal, Bangladesh and India are to share the water equally. Now Bangladesh TEESTA RIVER Water from the Teesta Siliguri Barrage Proiect irriaate 60,000 hectares now and is eventually expected to cover 9.22 lakh hectares ets 25%. A clause was to have been BENGAL allow India to draw more water during certain months | Jalpaiguri in north Benga Dzongu The 315km-long Teesta (tri-srota or three streams) originates from this glacier in Sikkim Bangladesh ANGLADES Phansidewa The neighbour depends on the Teesta waters especially for irrigation downstream during the dry December-March period The water from the Teesta Main Canal also feeds a hydel project here Map not to scale TEESTA WATER ISSUE
Teesta water sharing proposed agreement .Interim agreement for 15 yrs is proposed in which joint data collection would be done. Presently both countries have different estimates and this has not been even made public by WB state govt. ISSUES are: Disagreement internally in India btw political parties question with regards to how much water WB needs? No internal water sharing accord btw Sikkim and WB Sikkim has more hydro power projects hence needs to betaken in board Water is a state subject and hence legitimate demands of state govt needs to be addressed Lack of public education with regards to water sharing accord- leads to negative propaganda like "Centre is giving our share to neighbours"; "lndia is denying water to us"
Teesta water sharing- solution Teesta agreement is "priority for Bangla govt" but very difficulty for Indian govt. . We should do a cost benefit analysis and maintaining "status quo" is not in our favour. Rather India can use this as a leverage for "COMPREHENSIVE TRANSIT AGREEMENT" . This would create goodwill" for India and would give political leverage to Awami League govt which is being criticised by BNP. . India also needs cooperation of Bangladesh if in future we put forth our concerns about China building dams on Tsang Po rivers( as Bangladesh is also a lower riparian state) We need to take state govts on board - It was CM Jyoti Basu who pushed the Ganga water sharing agreement. Public education with regards to water sharing details must be undertaken.
TRADE ISSUES . TRADE IMBALANCE for Bangladesh ==> US $ 5.34 billion with India's exports to Bangladesh accounting for US $ 4.776 billion and imports US $ 0.564 million with the duty free access given by India to Bangladesh for all items except 25. . Reason => Bangladesh industries don't produce goods which can find markets in India. . Solution => 1 . Duty free and quota free access to their goods 2. Indian manufacturers to setup industries in Bangladesh and they export to India -> recent MoU for setting up SEZ is with this regards. 3. Extending line of credit (2bn $) having component of rail modernisation n better connectivity i.e. using waterways and multimodes end to end reduces transaction costs- increased exports of Bangla goods 4. Border haats to legalised trade and curb illegal trade.
Relations Perception in Bangladesh that India has neglected them "benign neglect' 13 . we promise much but not deliver e.g. Dredgers for removing the silt- in process Rail link- Agartala and Akhaura 15 kms link from 2010 bot yet completed Rail modernisation is a part in LOC but not yet done. Land bridge over River Feni - promised in 2010 not yet done. Not given due importance to Bangladesh in our foreign policy. . Amb G Parthasarthi: Indian foreign policy is at times perceived to be too"Pak centric."
2. Illegal Migrants lssue- What should be done Talk to Bangladesh govt - get them to understand the complexity and push it in Joint Comm talks agenda. India should make it clear that we understand that the Bangladeshi govt has no policy of pushing the migrants but must recognise this as an issue. 13 . Can address the issue indirectly under "HUMAN trafficking" and Border Mgmt commissions. . Can use SAARC CONV on HUMAN TRAFFICKING for finding a solution to the issue. .We need to "sensitise the Bangladeshi govt about the hardship and exploitation of migrants' India can help in tackling the "push factors" ( energy coop, development aid, LOC, rail modernisation, HEP etc. )
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