IR-INDIA- BANGLADESH Presented by: Aaditya Mishra
Titles: 1. World order - already covered 2. Foreign policy- already covered 3. India and it's neighbour- Nepal - already covered 4. India and it's neighbour- Bhutan, Bangladesh. (Present topic) 5. India and it's neighbour- Pakistan 6. India and it's neighbour- Afghanistan 7. India and it's neighbour- Sri Lanka, 8. India and it's neighbour- Mauritius, Seychelles. 9. India and it's neighbour- Myanmar, Great Game of East. 10. SAARC and Neighbourhood first policy 11. ACT East policy 12. India and China 13. Changing Economic Order- BRICS, AllB 14. India- Russia 15. India and CAR( central Asian republic) 16. India and West Asia- IRAN, Syria, Yemen. 17. Israel-Palestine issue 18. India- USA
Few Misc. Things PPT's avail able for download at ISSUU.com Log In, Follow publisher name - Aaditya Mishra, download. . Regards to my teachers- Mrs. Shubhra Ranjan manm and Dr. Khan. . Separate video for Pol Sci optional subject with sources and what I feel about it. . Feedback is still an area where we are lacking. So let us try to use this opportunity to help each other.
What to read? India Bangladesh LAND BOUNDARY AGREEMENT illegal migration, illegal trade, drugs and human trafficking . current state of relations and issues involved Teesta water sharing agreement Importance of Bangladesh for India. Internal politics of Bangladesh- Battle of Begums and India. . Assessment of our foreign policy.
Relations . India had played role in its formation - 1971 war Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated and military rule- relations nose dived Relation started improving once democracy returned Bangladesh's internal politics also govern our relationship . When BNP (Khalida Zia as PM)+ Jamat-e- Islami govt. comes to power . Awami Legaue- Sheikh Hasina's as PM- Pro India- "progressive relations" 60
AWAMI LEAGUE (SHEIKH HASINA) BANGL. NATIONALIST PARTY + JAMAT-e-Islami POWER CENTRE Post 2008 elections: Brute majority Post 2014 elections 232 /300 seats in Parliament because BNP boycotted the elections. Because of Boycott by major political party this govt faces "crisis of legitimacy" Pre 2008; Boycotted the 2014 elections on the pretext that ruling govt would not allow free and fair elections Took to street protests and violence ; factionalism TERM Pro Indian policies: 1. Counter terrorism coop 2. No free hand to ISI 3. Control over fundamentalist Not particularly pro India 1. Coalition partner JAMAT- fundamentalist, extremist elements get free hand Policies fringe elements 2. Cosies up with China and 4. Help in curbing anti India Pak activities on the border front. 3. Less Counter terror coop 5. Coop in extradition
AWAMI LEAGUE (SHEIKH HASINA) BANGL. NATIONALIST PARTY + JAMAT-e-Islami POWER CENTRE 1. Going ahead with war crime 1. Not particularly wanting trials and punishing criminals war crime trials 2. Many leaders of JAMAT also 2. Dependent on Jamat Stands on various Issues were hanged because of their roles in 1971 war crimes cadres for its ground activities hence ground situation becomes out of control 3. Using China, Japan and India at the same time 1. Land Boundary agreement (done in 2015) 1. Not much as it is relying on anti India rhetoric for political mobilisation 2. Teesta water sharing What it expects from India agreement 3. faster implementation of our 2. Wants to play China card promises with India
AWAMI LEAGUE (SHEIKH HASINA) BANGL. NATIONALIST PARTY + JAMAT-e-Islami POWER CENTRE 1. Faster ground implementation 1 1. Develop positive relations 2. A favourabl le Teesta water with BNP also as China 2. Develop across the party 3. Recent meeting of EAM sharing agreement has. What India needs 3 to do ? 3. Transit agreement for India. 4. Coop in energy exploration consensus front, environmental conservation, regulate illegal migration issue, better people to people cooperation. with Khalida Zia.
Geography intertwines both countries India's North East is Bangladesh locked and Bangladesh is India locked Lhasa Tarmar Ngamringxoi Rinbung Z tang TIBET Xigaze Gyangz Pokhara CHIN A ARUNACHAL NEPAL autanw ..dhL(DISPUTED), Dibrugarh -PRADESH CDISPUTED Dibrugarh Kathmandu KKI oThimphu rth Lakhimpur Ga Gorakhpu BHUTAN a t Duidam T zpur Jorh Mag avwn g Htingnu hliguri Tsauwi Tsauul a o oDartb Patna Muzaffarpro o Guwahati ASSAM MEGHALAYA Chhapra AGAL ngpur Myitkyin Bhagalpuro ranasi Namagan Mogaung Balurg Gayra IN DIA Bokaroo ANIPU Minya Nantan o aishahi Pabna Madangyang Dhaka Ranchi MYANMAR AsnsoBANGLADESH Asansol Fa TripuraM ng Mit BIHAR Raurkefa Kolkata Khulna aki Monywao BANGLA Chittagong Mandalay Barabi Ukhiya Sambalpur ORISSA Chauk Meiktile inpara Y India-Bangladesh Boernp r Border Kyaukpanduywama Laukpale Yenangyaung Taunggvi Bhubaneshwar Sittwe 2001 Microsoftrgato'rll rights reserved ap 2001 Micros rights reserved
Relations Perception in Bangladesh that India has neglected them- "benign neglect' 30 . we promise much but not deliver e.g. Dredgers for removing the silt- in process Rail link- Agartala and Akhaura 15 kms link from 2010 bot yet completed . Rail modernisation is a part in LOC but not yet done Land bridge over River Feni - promised in 2010 not yet done Not given due importance to Bangladesh in our foreign policy. . Amb G Parthasarthi: Indian foreign policy is at times perceived to be too"Pak centric.
Relations . Improvement after "Look east" policy - focus on increasing the connectivity through Bangladesh. . Bangladesh had also diversified its foreign policy and come out of India's shadow . It is using its geo-strategic position, cheap labour, ports to promote economic developments. . 2nd largest textile exports, good social indicators, growing at around 7% per annum. . Diplomatically maintains good relations with China and Japan also. . Plays China card with India n Japan and India Japan Card with China.
India Bangladesh Sushma Swaraj also met Khalida Zia of BNP sign to India trying to build goodwill across the parties BNP also changing as earlier they havee refused to meet President Pranab Mukherjee counter: Amb Pinak RanjanChakravarti -" BNP had dual policy- when not in power it comes close to India but when in power it cosies with China and Pakistan
In the next part we will look at the importance of Bangladesh for India and then at the issues separately
2. Illegal Migrants Issue who is llegal migrant?-> Sec 2(b) of Ctzn Amnd Act, 2003 illegal migrant" means a foreigner who has entered into lndia- (i) without a valid passport or other travel documents and such other document or authority as may be prescribed by or under any law in that behalf; or (ii) with a valid passport or other travel documents and such other document or authority as may be prescribed by or under any law in that behalf but remains therein beyond the permitted period of time;
2. Illegal Migrants Issue . History . Goes pre independence Nawab of Assam initiated "Grow More Food Campaign" after Bengal famine and attack over Burma by Japanese (Burma was 15% rise provider for East India at that time) During civil war in East Pak => persecution threats faced by Hindu's - cause for India's involvement in 1971 war Most affected states are: Tripura, Assam and WB. Tripura has faced "demographic inversion" - now tribals are a minority.
2. Illegal Migrants Issue AH Mahmood Ali migrant issue did not come up in the talks with EAM Mrs. Swaraj" .AH Mahmood Ali (foreign minister statement 2014) : "illegal This is core issue: "Bangladesh's long standing policy has been denying claims of any illegal migration" So when the other side doesn't even recognise the problem solving it bilaterally becomes a problem. Amb Veena Sikri: When it is not discussed in Joint Assam (clashes btw Bengali locals and Muslims) Minorities are threatened in Bangladesh (1970's-20% Hindus, now <10 % Hindus.)
2. Illegal Migrants Issue . Porous border and racial similarity makes it more complex Irrationally drawn border - Radcliffe line - correction done in LBA - pragmatic approach - discussed aheac Lack of coop from Bangladeshi security forces - no night duty from their side, involvement in dalali Push factors => poverty, unemployment, natural disasters, water scarcity, power shortages etc. Pull factors => prospects of better life in India, Indian factory owners also find it lucrative etc.
2. Illegal Migrants Issue- Steps taken . India has a policy to "stop migration" and "push back." Building of "electric barbed wire fences" . India also adopts "deportation. India pushed the issue 1st time this in 1992 in the JOINT COMM .In BJP's 2014 election rally - "amending the ctzn act and providing ctznship to Hindu migrants"who migrated because of threat of "religious persecution". National Register of Citizens (NRC) is expected to identify those who illegally entered Assam after 1971. read further on differences btw NRC and NPFR
WHAT IS NATIONAL REGISTER OF CITIZENS (NRC)? The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is the register containing details of all Indian citizens. Citizenship being a subject of the Union List, policy decisions, guidelines and funds for NRC updation are provided by the Central Government but its implementation is done through the State Government machinery under the guidance of the Registrar General of India who functions as the Registrar General of Citizen Registration. 1ST TIME IN => After conducting the Census of 1951, the National Register of Citizens (NRC) was prepared by recording particulars of all the persons enumerated during the 1951 Census WHAT IS NRC 1951? After the conduct of the Census of 1951, a National Register of Citizens (NRC) was prepared in respect of each village showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein, and in respect of each individual, the father's name/mother's name or husband's name, nationality, sex, age, marital status, educational qualification, means of livelihood or occupation and visible identification mark. This was done by copying out in registers the particulars recorded during the Census done in 1951 This NRC was prepared under a directive from the Ministry of Home affairs (MHA). These registers covered each and every person enumerated during the Census of 1951 and were kept in the offices of Deputy Commissioners and Sub Divisional Officers according to instructions issued by the Government of India in 1951. Later these registers were transferred to the Police ir the early 1960s.
2. Illegal Migrants Issue- What should be done Talk to Bangladesh govt - get them to understand the complexity and push it in Joint Comm talks agenda. India should make it clear that we understand that the Bangladeshi govt has no policy of pushing the migrants but must recognise this as an issue. 13 Can address the issue indirectly under "HUMAN trafficking" and Border Mgmt commissions. . Can use SAARC CONV on HUMAN TRAFFICKING for finding a solution to the issue . We need to "sensitise the Bangladeshi govt about the hardship and exploitation of migrants' India can help in tackling the "push factors" ( energy coop, development aid, LOC, rail modernisation, HEP etc. )
2. Illegal Migrants Issue- What should be done Issue of enclaves, adverse possession, undemarcated borders etc. have been dealt with in LBA. Border areas to be developed as "areas of prosperity" through use of Border haats etc. . Practical solution can be" Issuing "work permits" to migrants .help in regularising and regulating the movement would also help in protecting their rights agst exploitation. India can have similar provisions like we have with Nepal and Sri Lanka.
In the next part we would discuss Teesta water sharing issue and Transit agreement
Water Sharing .54 transnational rivers btw India and Bangladesh Bangladesh being lower riparian state has concerns regarding India's HEP in upper river streams. Only 1 agreement till date : Ganga water sharing agreement 1996 .Bangladesh objected to const of Farakka Barrage to maintain Calcutta port and to address the needs of city industries. Bangladesh took the issue in UNGA in 1976 .1996 30 yrs agreement was signed by Awami League but was opposed by BNP . as per the agreement 1. During lean seasons (Jan- May) distribution of water will be 50:50 if flow is < 70k cusecs 2. if > 70k cusecs then India will get 40k cusecs and rest Bangladesh.
Teesta water sharing . 1983 Ad-hoc agreement on Teesta water sharing reached for 75% of Teesta water. (remaining 25% is to be done) Who gets how much? Water share from Teesta India 39% Bangladesh 36% Unallocated 25% 1984: Joint-river commission appointed to collect hydrological data & suggest a rational method for water sharing e Commission recommended increasing Bangladesh's share, on logic that W.Bengal's barrage is very close to Bangladesh border (~90 km). Some water will penetrate underground and benefit both countries anyways.
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