INDIA-CHINA RELATIONS PRESENTED BY: AADITYA MISHRA
Collection: International Relations me: . Graduation from NIT, Bhopal- 2015 Wrote Mains Pdf of this lesson is available at ISSUU.COM (ink in the description below) Follow me: https://unacademy.in/user/ AadityaMishra . RATE, REVIEW & RECOMMEND Contribute if this helps you.
Nuclear Suppliers Group NSG is a 48 member grouping that was formed with the aim of ensuring non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology NSG was established in the wake of India's Pokharan tests in 1974. NSG is not an international treaty The guidelines were evolved in 2001 at Aspen for admitting new members to the organisation. Amongst them, membership of NPT is only a guideline, a consideration, and not a mandatory requirement.
x India's nuclear doctrine NFUI; Non use against non nuke countries + Voluntary moratorium on further testing. It was civil nuclear deal with US, concluded in 2008, that paved the way for India's application as a member of NSG. India's commitment to separate its civilian and military nuclear programmes and its impeccable non proliferation record along with its ratification of an Additional Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) add to India's credentials for NSG membership India also changed its export laws and now in line with the guidelines of NSG x India's track-record in observing the provisions of NPT and NSG while not being a member of either body is impeccable x If NSG was able to grant waiver to India in 2008 on the basis of its past performance, it should have no objection to admitting it as a member this time
BENEFITS Access to technology for a range of uses from medicine to building nuclear power plants for India India committed to reducing dependence on fossil fuels and ensuring that 40% of its energy is sourced from renewable and clean sources, x Membership of NSG will provide greater certainty and legal foundation to India's nuclear regime nuclear reaime x India would like to move into the category of international nuclear commerce rule- creating nations rather than stay in the ranks of rule-adhering nations India can commercialize the production of nuclear power equipment. This in turn will boost innovation and high tech manufacturing in India
China's arguments Statements maintaining that no single country waiver should be granted to India. It stated that India, in any case, is not eligible to become a member of NSG as it is not a member of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT), adherence to which is necessary for the entry China has also averred that for non-NPT members some definite criteria should be evolved rather than granting country specific waivers. would disturb the nuclear-arms balance in South Asia as India will engage in a massive nuclear weaponisation programme x Beijing stated that Pakistan too has similar credentials to join the NSG Chinese in other words, whatever rules diplomats insist that NSG entry to be norm-based govern Indian entry should apply to others too
Arguments against Chinese stand Pakistan AQ Khan network; Chinese help in Pac nuclearisation; not even separated civilian and military reactors China's own record is dubious and itself lacks credential and hence from 2004 it has not been able to gain membership to MTCR. India maintains that rather than evolving criteria, its performance should be the basis on which the decision on its application should be taken.
Geopolitics in NSG entry
Indian policy shift?? x During the Cold War, India had been critical of these regimes condemning them as mechanism to deny technology to developing countries In the run up to the 2008 waiver, India began to modify. Agreeing to formally join the NSG and the other export control regimes such as the Australia Group, the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), and the Wassenaar Arrangement reflects a policy shift by the Indian government India had a fundamental position that our objective is disarmament and not merely non-proliferation Its position and demonstrate its credentials as a responsible nuclear weapon state.
Analysing Chinese posture!! Some believe that China is just posturing, taking a hard stance against India, only to sacrifice its position later in the hope of muting global opposition to its moves in the South China Sea. There is also hope that China may trade-off its opposition in return for its own membership into the Missile Technology Control Regime(MTGR) China has a more aggressive outward posture and it is seeking ambition that it will not allow the US to write the rules of the international order according to its wishes. Pakistan's application to join the NSG, made just days after India's request, was clearly part of a coordinated strategy with China to block India's admittance. * China is an Asian regional power, aspiring to global primacy, and it is not about to give India, a regional state with some geoeconomics and military heft, a leg up. Chinese statements that India's entry into the NSG would upset the balance in South Asia also revealed Beijing's preference to keep India hyphenated with Pakistan and locked into regional frameworks
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