Sunil Singh is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
About Me Name-Sunil Kumar Singh JRF, Pursuing research in History Faced UPSC interview in 2015, and 2016 Taught history for 3 years at University level Follow me at: https://unacademy.com/user/kumarsunilvns99
Industrial revolution eVIeans Why in Britain first * Importance Different path to industralisation : Britain, France & Germany . Effects of Industrial revolution
WHAT IS THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION?
Industrial revolution . Industrial revolution refers to replacement of human or animal labour by mechanical power System of manufacturing things on a large scalee with the help of machinery driven by steam or electrical power
Industrial revolution The term used for the period between 18th and 19th centuries when predominantly rural and agricultural areas in Europe and America became urban and industrialized The rapid changes were brought about by the development of machines and the discovery of other sources of power which resulted to the construction of factories and mass production. The period also marked development when it came to transportation, communication and commerce.
Industrial revolution Refers to a period from the 18th century and forward, where countries in Western Europe went through a revolution from an agricultural to an industrial empire Change happened somewhat differently in each setting because of varying resources, political conditions, and social and economic status
Images of Industrialization SMOKE-BELCHING FACTORIES: A COMMON SIGHT
In the mid-1700s, an Industrial Revolution began in| England that transformed the way work was done
Rather than making goods by hand, new machines mass- produced products; this lowered costs of producing goods, increased profits, and changed the way people lived
- CRy popuistion NORWAY prenter than 250.pco Industry in Europe, 1870 constructed by 1870 Industy UNITED KINGDO SWEDE O Textile indusary Caae mining Glasgow North DENMARK hester NETHERLANDS BELGIUM Amsterdam By 1900, industrialization spread tnroughh Europe and to the United States, Berlin Warsaw Brus GERMANY LUX Paris FRANCE Vienan SWITZERLAND AUSTRIA- HUNGARY transforming the West into the dominant region of the world What caused the Industrial Revolution and why did it begin in England?
What was life like before the Industrial Revolution?
Farmers relied on the medieval and inefficient three-field system Few farmers experimented with new farm As a result, the little food that was produced kept the population of Europe from growing rapidly
In the mid-1700s new farm techniques led to an Agricultural Revolution in Europe New crops like corn and potatoes were introduced from the New World
THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION led to more food More food = more people More people - more demand for goods More demand for goods INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Industrial Revolution: Important Events and Inventions 1712- Thomas Newcomen invented the steam engine known as the Newcomen Engine. The machine was only used to pump water out of mines and wasn't very useful yet. But the use of steam to power machines became a vital turn-point in the Industrial Revolution. 1719 - John Lombe started his own silk factory, the first silk throwing mill in England and the first factory ever built. 1733 - John Kay invented and patented the Flying Shuttle, a simple weaving machine which allowed one weaver to weave wider fabrics cutting labor force by half. 1764 - James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny [Jenny being a variant of the word Engine], a machine which made cloth-making faster and easier as one worker could spin eight spindles altogether.
1767 - Richard Arkwright invented and patented the water-powered spinning frame known as the Water Frame which made cotton thread creation easier. The machine was first used in 1768 and manufactured yarns that were sturdier and harder than what the spinning jenny produced. Arkwright's invention played an important role in the development of the factory system. 1769 - James Watt improved the Newcomen Engine and built a more efficient steam engine, considered one of the most vital inventions of the Industrial Revolution. 1775-1779 - Between these years, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule, a machine that combined the spinning and weaving processes. It was so named as the mule is the crossbred offspring of a female horse and a male donkey much like the machine which combined the works of the spinning jenny and the water frame. Later on, in 1825, the self-acting or automatic mule was patented by Richard Roberts.
.Britain is considered the birthplace of Industrial Revolution. As a matter of fact, industrialization was highly limited to Britain in 1760 until 1830 Aware of the head start, the British monopolized industrialization and outlawed the exportation of machines, skilled workers and manufacturing systems .But British monopoly did not last as some Britons saw great industrial opportunities abroad and sought to fulfill them.
The most notable was when Englishmen William and John Cockerill developed machine shops in Liege, Belgium in 1807 marking the start of the Industrial Revolution in the country. The move made Belgium the first country in Continental Europe to be economically transformed The First Industrial Revolution is also known as the Classical Industrial Revolution while the Second Industrial Revolution's other term is Technological Revolution
Towns with over 2O,000 people are shown 50 400 scOTLAND The Industrial Revolution began in ENGLAND in the mid-1700s Cities with over 100,000 people are labeled Exposed coalfields Industrial areas Principal railroads 50 Km 50 Mi Cotton and woolen textiles Machinery rish Sea Iron Bradfor North Sea Liverpool Sheffiel Iron Hardware Manchester rmingha WALES Iron Machinery Potery Iron ondon HEAVY INDUSTRIAL AREAS ristol Machinery Consumer goods Tin and min English Channel
Whv in Britain First . By the 1780s, the British Industrial Revolution, which had been developing for several decades, began to further accelerate. Emergence of machine Spinning jenny, Spinning mule, power loom, steam engine etc Agriculture revolution The perfection of the horse-drawn seed press -farming less labor intensive and more productive.
Whv in Britain First . The large-scale growth of new crops- potato and maize, by 1750 . The passing of the Enclosure Laws, limiting the commorn land available to small farmers in 1760 Availability of capital profit from growing trade .Loan obtained - Bank of England
Whv in Britain First Practical bent of mind of the English researcher- Made inventions keeping in view the needs of time . Geographical location Cut off from mainland-remained immune from war & upheavals of Nepoleonic conflicts, easy to transport raw material & finished goods
Why in Britain First Small population- . Could not cope with England's growing demand shortage of labour-apply new mechanical device . Availability of coal & iron mines close to each other . Social & political stability - insular position saved disastrous consequences of war, encouraged the people to invest