Sunil Singh is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
ABOUT ME Name- Sunil Kumar Singh JRF, Pursuing research in History Faced UPSC interview in 2015, and 20l6 Taught history for 3 years at University level Follow me at: htps:/lunacademy.com/user/kumarsunilvns99
FRENCH REVOLUTION . What was it When did it take place Factor & circumstances of revolution Social factor, Economic factor Role of monarchy Role of ideas, ideology&philosopher Progress of revolution . Consequences & Impact
FRENCH REVOLUTION The French Revolution was a period of time in France when the people overthrew the monarchy and took control of the government.
SOCIAL FACTOR Division of French Society During 18th Century Typical social structure - 3 states 1 estate Clergy 2nd estate Noblity 3rd estate Big businessmen, Court officials Lawyers, Administrative officials, etc Small farmers, Artisans Very small farmers, labours, servants
ECONOMIC FACTOR Financial policy of the French government was extremely faulty Division of French Society During 18th Century profitless wars, spent lavishly on various projects & reliefs Policy of taxation was fully anomaly Nobility & clergy - paid the minimum Three evils - privilege, concession & exemption estato Clergy z" estate Noblity 3* estate Big businessmen, Court officials, Lawyers, Administrative officials, etc Small farmers, Artisans . Inflation & bad harvest- made situation worst Very small farmers
ROLE OF MONARCHY . Weak character of Louis sixteen - dull, timid, no capacity to govern or take decision Under him a prodigal anar der him a prodigal anarchy reigned in France King fail to support proposal of reforms - Turgot, Necker, Brienne etc tried to reform but failed
ROLE OF PHILOSOPHERS French revolution became revolution of ideas Declaration of the right of man, the principles of liberty, equality & fraternity - drawn from the writings of philosophers & partly from the American revolution e lock, Russo, Montesquieu, Voltaire etc - kind of awakening, influencing public opinion, educated the group of people
SUMMARY exclusion from political power and positions of honour (2) peasants acutely aware of their situation and were less and less willing to support the anachronistic and burdensome feudal system (3) Philosophes-read more widely in France than anywhere else
SUMMARY (4) Participation - (5) Crop failures in 1788,- economic difficulties. existing restlessness (6) French monarchy, no longer seen as unable to adapt to the political and societal pressures that were being exerted on it. --driven - , was
PROGRESS OF REVOLUTION o ISt Phase - Constitutional monarchy (1789-92) 2nd Phase - Reign of terror (1792-94) 3rd Phase -The directory (1794-99 .4th Phase-Napoleon (1799-1814) Historians have divided the period of the French Revolution into four different phases. National France became a constitutional Assembly monarchy Reign of A radical phase with escalating violence Terror. End of the monarchy DirectoryA period of reaction against extremism Age ofConsolidation of many revolutionary Napoleon changes . A period of war throughout Europe
PROGRESS OF REVOLUTION Divided over a fundamental issue: Problem: How Do They Vote? e Vote by head, giving the New Order Old Regime advantage to the Third Estate, or by estate, in which case the two privileged orders of the realm might outvote the third? 1 vote 1st Estate st Estate Voting is based 2nd Estate -300 2nd Estate on 1 vote representation 648 1 vote d Estate Estate The King decreed that they must vote bsed on the ancient order- results?
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY (1789-92) Introduced the proclaiming liberty, equality, the inviolability of property, and the right to resist oppression Tried to create a monarchical regime - legislative and executive powers shared between the king and an assembly Louis XVI was weak and vacillating - tried to flee the country, but stopped , brought back to Paris.
SECOND PHASE REIGN OF TERROR Stamp out any opposition to the revolution, anyone suspected of treason could be arrested and executed by guillotine. Thousands of people were executed including Queen Marie Antoinette and many of Robespierre's political rivals. . Monarchy abolished e Robespierre no longer had any justification for his extreme actions, and he himself was arrested in July 1794 and executed
3RD PHASE - THE DIRECTORY (1794-99) Period of governmental restructuring began, leading to the new Constitution of 1795 A group known as the Directory was formed. Though it had no legislative abilities, the Directory's abuse of power soon came to rival that of any of the tyrannous revolutionaries FranceN had faced.
IMPACT Country of progressive Ideals -Liberty, equality, Fraternity On Europe- Spread of progressive ideals - entered through Napoleon context Inspiration of liberation from ancient regime Libration movement play important role in unification of Germany & Italy Coming of the age of the middle class