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31st August - The Hindu Editorial - Part-2(in Hindi)
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Subhodeep Das
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U
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Hello sir...just wanted to thank u for ur awesome course and awesome discussions. Hatts of for ur dedication, committment and PUNCTUALITY
  1. THEDU EDITORIAL DISCUSSION 31st August THE HINDU


  2. Geography NCERT Geography NCERT The Earth: Our Habitat MAINS ANSWER WRITING Our Environment For IAS / UPSC Class-7 Class 6 By Subhodeep Das By Subhodeep Das By Subhodeep Das (Hindi) NCERT Geography -Class7 (Hindi) NCERT Geography - Class 6 (Hindi) GS Answer Writing Practice for UPSC and IAS.. Specturm Beek World Straits Geography Optiona HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Chapter 2 argrted Students UPSC/IAS State PCS MODERN INDIA Models, Theories and Laws UPSC /I 5sc State in Human Geography By Subhodeep Das By Subhodeep Das (Hindi) Major Straits of World By Subhodeep Das Religious & Social Reform Movements Modern Indian History... (Hindi) Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography UBHODEEP


  3. THEDU EDITORIAL DISCUSSION 31st August THE HINDU


  4. /fride andforeign aid Pride and foreign aid The shale gas challenge India's refusal to take help in times of natural disasters is self-defeating and against the federal spirit S. UBHODEEP


  5. Pride andforeign aid The shale gas challenge We need a sector-specific environment impact assessment manual on exploration and production S. UBHODEEP


  6. Unconventional Conventional GAS RESERVOIR SANDSTONE SEAL GAS/SOURCE ROCK SHALE, COALBED METHANE) S. UBHODEEP


  7. lythr On August 1, 2018, the Central government approved a far-reaching policy that allows private and government players to explore and exploit unconventional hydrocarbons (including shale gas) in contract areas that were primarily allocated for extracting conventional hydrocarbons. iovs arieae m shale gas is trapped under low permeable rocks. Therefore, a mixture of 'pressurised water, chemicals, and sand' (shale fluid) is required to break low permeable rocks in order to unlock the shale gas reserves. The process requires around 5 to 9 million litres of water per extraction activity, posing a daunting challenge to India's fresh water resources. cause pollution due to the disposal of flowback (produced) water UBHODEEP


  8. Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) process. The EIA process, however, does not differentiate between conventional and unconventional hydrocarbons Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), which generally releases sector-specific manual for environment clearance, is yet to come out with a manual specific to fracking activities. Despite acknowledging the enormity of water requirement for fracking activities, the guideline fails to give a general estimate of water requirement per unit of shale gas over the lifetime of a shale well. A recent study from Duke University observes that from 2011 through 2016, the water use per well in the US. increased up to 770% resulting in some shale wells consuming up to 42 million litres of water per well UBHODEEP


  9. The study further conveys that over a period of time, the usage of water dramatically increases for extracting the same amount of shale gas from a wel The importance of clarity in water usage and the place of shale gas extraction in India is linked directly with water requirements of priority sectors like agriculture Shale rocks are usually adjacent to rocks containing useable/ drinking water known as 'aquifers'. As noted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2017, while fracking, the shale fluid could possibly penetrate aquifers leading to methane poisoning of groundwater used for drinking and irrigational purposes. S. UBHODEEP


  10. Studies- such contamination can be controlled, if not avoided, provided a project proponent maintains a distance of 600 m between the aquifers and shale gas fracture zones guideline states that a project proponent must "design and construct wells with proper barriers to isolate and protect groundwater", but misses out on broadly describing the nature or properties of a barrier surface, knovie pending on the local geology f surface, known as 'flowback water. When shale fluid is injected underground at high pressure to fracture the rock, 5.50% (depending on the local geology) of the fluid returns to the fracture the Return flows continue as oil and gas is pumped from the well. UBHODEEP


  11. As a first step, a sector-specific EIA manual on exploration and production of unconventional hydrocarbon resources may be a good idea. UBHODEEP