Jatin Verma is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
anted to show the boss whatcE s bnat th Page-8 South: Kerala acquires over 55% land for NH 66 widening. The Kerala government appears well on its way to achieve what used to be considered impossible by acquiring over 55% of the land needed for the four/six-laning of the National Highway 66 from Talapady in Kasaragod district to Kazhakuttam in y hav he Thiruvananthapuram district pho Overcoming several hurdles, including opposition from locals on the alignment, the Revenue Department could acquire l ,469 of the 2,629 hectares of land (55.87%) needed in 10 districts. layer Of the land acquired, 3(A) notification under the National Highway Act of 1956 has been hink h cause l erent issued for 848 hectares in the Central Gazette, and 3(D) notification for 274 hectares. The acquisition has come as a big relief for the State that is bracing to meet the September deadline for acquiring the remaining 1,160 hectares. . a pu On schedule: The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), the executing agency, has rk and set December 2020 as the deadline for completing work on the NH 66 with a 'right of way' (RoW) of 45 m The land acquisition is "on track and is moving as per schedule."
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE to Fixing compensation: The 3(D) notification Four-laning and procedures to acquire land by removing the houses and other structures on the notified land will follow. This will be followed by the 3(G) notification to estimate the value of the land as per the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation Resettlement Act, 2013. The compensation to those being displaced will be awarded as per the recommendation of the Competent Authority for Land Acquisition (CALA) and will be intimated to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH). buat th NH CORRIDORS Thalapad 130-km y hav reve he g 82-lam Vengalam slay puram pe ar 121-lkm ink h ause erent . Cherthala Du 6.8-km Alappuzha bypass8u t stay Kollam bypass
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE The MoRTH has to pay roughly Rs. 6 crore for acquiring 1 km of land in Kerala compared to 0 the Rs. 65 lakh in other States. The MoRTH is yet to respond to a government order of December 29,2017, to provide more compensation for those being displaced than cited in Schedule 2 of the 2013 Act in . 0 pe view of the peculiar situation in the State. Rs. 26,000 crore estimate: The Hybrid Annuity Model a mix of Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) and Build, Operate, Transfer (BOT) Annuity models _ will be adopted by the MoRTH to execute the widening works, estimated to cost Rs 26,000 crore, under the Union government's Bharatmala Pariyojana scheme.
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE s bnat th Hybrid Annuity Model (HAM) Hybrid annuity means that payment is made in a fixed amount for a considerable period and then in a variable amount in the remaining period. This hybrid type of payment method is attached under the HAMM y hav . In Indian context, the new HAM is a mix of BOT Annuity and EPC models. As per the design, the government will contribute to 40% of the project cost in the first five years through annual payments (annuity). The remaining payment will be made on the basis of the assets created and the performance of the developer. Here, hybrid annuity means the first 40% payment is made as fixed amount in five equal installments whereas the remaining 60% is paid as variable annuity amount after the completion of the project depending upon the value of i ree . he p slay or us erent assets created As the government pays only 40%, during the construction stage, the developer should find money for the remaining amount. Here, he has to raise the remaining 60% in the form of equity or loans There is no toll right for the developer. Under HAM, Revenue collection would be the responsibility of the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) . ap" rk and t sta .
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE Advantage of HAM is that it gives enough liquidity to the developer and the financial risk is shared by the government. While the private partner continues to bear the construction and maintenance risks as in the case of BOT (toll) model, he is required only to partly bear the financing risk. rch . Government's policy is that the HAM will be used in stalled projects where other models eare not applicable. rew pe ar locke stay par een t
Distribution of marks on broad subjects Marks Distribution Economy Agriculture Security Science Environment 15 25 75 25 10 50 Disaster Management
Page-7 North & East: Mahanadi row: Left protest against Chhattisgarh govt. at th Members of five Left parties staged a demonstration against the Chhattisgarh government in front of Raj Bhavan here, demanding a halt on the construction of dams and barrages on the upstream of the Mahanadi river. .The protesters from CPI, CPI(M), CPI(ML) Liberation, SUCI (Communist) and All India Forward Bloc- submitted a memorandum to Governor asking him to request the Central government to restrict Chhattisgarh from undertaking any construction over the river. They alleged that the Chhattisgarh government is constructing dams and barrages over the Mahanadi despite the Mahanadi Water Disputes Tribunal, constituted in March, looking into the row between the two States over the sharing of the river water he pe ar nk h The dams in Chhattisgarh have reduced the flow of river water in Odisha affecting the lives and livelihood of almost 2.5 crore people in 15 districts, alleged the agitating members. .Odisha not consulted' Of the 857 km length of the Mahanadi, Chhattisgarh and Odisha share 363 km and 494 km respectively Since 2003, the Chhattisgarh government has been constructing dams and barrages over the Mahanadi, basically to provide water to industrial houses, without taking the Odisha government into confidence," said Janardan Pati, a central committee member of the CPI(M). pur locke t stay
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE s bnat th Mahanadi River and its Tributaricsacademy Dhamra pho Parad reve he g Olive ridleys nesting beach Gahirmatha layer Devi river Rushikulya river -Essar dredging site or us hink h cause h Posco port site Mass nesting beaches """" Sporadic nesting beaches a pu rk and t sta "Map not to scale ch esthat
anted to show the boss whatcE s bnat th antpur Mirauni Saradih y hav pho reve he g layer aln eorinayaran HATTISGAR MAHANADI kud Samod or us hink h cause h erent ODISHA a pu rk and Industrial barrages
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE s bnat th Catchment Area (1,41,600 Sqkm WS of 50% of 48700 58% of tho UAS of the 34% of CA 24% of CA DPS of Hirakud upto y hav CHHATISGARH Tol Sub-basin 33760 70% of DS pho reve Catchment Area outside Orissa inside Orissa he g slay SEONATH ORISSA or us hink h cause h a pu Chilika Lake rk and t sta
on ns es nt M y oce aovoe te th e pRh sir de ti eodit ern 's th C etneWu epddf nunee eepr poe nue is e Oe di ner boe,Ph ySn 1f.J zoC. Cit raet nfsv diosa ueee sret eu r n c en ds eti een hhlic en Se aase e" ea vt.a et rinn Cnoa in an ran e a e r. irdk uis
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE The Chief Minister pointed out that technical problems in the implementation of water-sharing formula has not been addressed by the Centre and the "mistakes" in the guidelines need to be corrected. He, however, said appointment of the committee and the authority was under the court's directions and there was a "remote chance" of changing it But Karnataka will explore all issues that run against the State's interest legally and politically. Background: The Centre notified the formation of the CWMA and the CWRC, which will include representatives of the riparian States of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Puducherry. Members of three States, other than Karnataka, have been finalised . y hav pho he p layer reve. ope an or us hink h cause l erent .The notification said that .The committee would meet once in 10 days during June and October when the southwest . The meeting will be held at least once a fortnight but the committee will have powers to convene .In case of any exigency, a minimum of 48-hour notice wil be given for holding a meeting. and the northeast monsoon set in meetings as often as necessary. rk and It stay Authority's mandate: The authority's mandate is to regulate the storage, apportionment of the Cauvery waters, supervision of operation of reservoirs, and regulation of water release with the assistance of the committee
anted to show the boss whatcE to . Page-9: Governor undermining State's at th autonomv: Stalin Accusing Governor Banwarilal Purohit of working as an agent of the Centre and acting y hav phe against the State's autonomy, DMK working e president M.K. Stalin odemanded his reve layer resignation Black Flag March: Mr. Stalin, who led a flash protest condemning the arrest of DMK cadre stir against the Governor, told mediapersons that his party had been holding such protests wherever the Governor went on the pretext of reviewing administrative work. in Namakkal for holding a black flag hink h ause h erent a pu rk and
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE The Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Landscape (KKL) is a vital site situated within the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. KKL is spread over 25,000 km2 south of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, touchingthe neighbouring states of Meghalaya and Nagaland in north-eastern s bnat th 0 3 2 2 y hav ARB ANGLONG LANDSEAPE reve KARBIANGLONG LANDSCAPE INDIA 4 slay KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK or us hink h cause h rk and t sta ch
.What are the risks? . There are two major risks involved in foreign borrowings .One is that, like in the case of domestic borrowings, there could be unexpected changes in the interest rates charged on these loans. This can, for instance, cause widespread default when rates rise as borrowers may not be able to make higher interest payments, thus raising the risks of a systemic crisis. The raising of interest rates by the U.S. Federal Reserve has already caused borrowing rates to rise in various countries, including in India where bond yields have shot up sharply. The yield on the 10-year government bond, for instance, has risen to about 8% from around 6.5% at the end of June last year. Another major risk is unexpected changes in the exchange rates of currencies. .An unexpected fall in the value of the rupee, for instance, can cause severe difficulties for Indian companies that need to pay back dollar-denominated loans as they will now have to shell out more rupees than they had previously estimated to buy the necessary dollars. Lenders generally take possible fluctuations in the value of currencies into account when determining their lending rates.
want te be starti But such forecasts are not always perfect. Unexpected changes in exchange rates could stll impose surprise gains or losses on them. Various emerging market currencies have seen a sharp fall in value this year against the dollar. The rupee, in particular, has fallen about 7% since the beginning of the year. The fall in the value of the emerging market currencies is due to increasing demand for dollars from investors, who wish to sell " their assets in the emerging markets and invest them in the U.S. where yields have been rising quite he rapidly. . What happens next? .The U.S. central bank, which has already raised its benchmark interest rate twice this year, is expected to raise rates two more times in the rest of 2018 Further interest rate hikes could cause more outflow of capital from the emerging markets, thus causing unexpected changes in borrowing rates and the value of the rupee. Both government and non-government borrowers in India, who are exposed to foreign debt, could , be in trouble in such a scenario. e an k h ent .The foreign exchange reserves, held by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), were around S425 billion as on March 2018. ksa
want to be starting ganses, beiag anted to show the boss whatcE This is the firepower that the RBI can use to support the rupee and bail out borrowers who get into trouble. The RBI, which raised its benchmark interest rate for the first time in more than four years this month, may also decide to raise domestic interest rates further. While such a step could help to stem the capital outflow from the country and support . y has reve e#the rupee, it could lead to further uncertainty about borrowing rates in the domestic economy hink h fferent a pu Ivis rk and t sta par eent
anted to show the boss whatcE imp s bnat th y hav pho reve he g layer or us hink h cause h a pu rk and