PARIS 2015 UN CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE
Paris climate summit: A Prelude Climate change: A reality? Average temperature of earth in 2016 is 1.3 degree C higher than 1880 when record keeping began. Green house gases due to anthropogenic factors causing this climate change.. IPCC brought various report to prove this It recommended that rise in temperature should be limited to 1.5 degrees above preindustrial level by 2100 What is Paris Climate Summit or Paris Conference? Kyoto Protocol , which put binding target on developed and industrialised nations to reduce emission of GHGs -Annex I countries was to expire on 2020. .So what after 2020? To finalise on climate change actions by nations post 2020 Paris Conference (UNFCCC) or COP 21 was held in 2015
Fine Prints of Paris Agreement Keep the global temperature rise this century to well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial level. Pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius Improve and Strengthen the ability of countries(especially developing and least developed) to deal with the impacts of climate change. Countries pledged NDCs. NDCs are contributions that each country should make in order to achieve the worldwide goals The level of NDC that each country sets determines the targets to be achieved by the particular country. . These contributions should be reported every five years. (stocktaking isi ko bolte) .Developed countries have to provide financial resources to developing countries to help them mitigate and adapt to the risk of climate change..Pledged $100 Bn every year after 2020. 'Create a new market for trading carbon credits. Thus all in all an agreement was reached..but fineprints on rules were to be decided in later COPs..So this Katowice is thus the COP where the rules for implementation of paris agreement has been agreed
COP24.KATOWICE 2018 UNITED NATIONS CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE
Katowice climate change summit With the Paris climate deal set to come into effect in 2020, nearly 200 countries gathered at Katowice in Poland to adopt a set of rules to limit global warming After the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015, the conference was mandated to finalize the modalities, procedures and guidelines, called the "Paris Rulebook". Katowice conference finalized a 133-page rulebook for implementation of the Paris Agreement, which was unanimously adopted by all member countries The rule book sets out how countries will measure, report and verify their emissions-reduction efforts The guidelines set out how countries will provide information about their Nationally Determined Contributions describing their domestic climate actions, mitigation and adaptation measures. The other two key issues at the conference were the conclusion of the 2018 Facilitative Talanoa Dialogue and the stock-taking exercise on pre-2020 implementation and ambition. . .
India reaffirmed its commitment to meeting the goals under the Paris Agreement and engaged in all the negotiations while protecting its key interests, including climate justice. But it expressed strong reservation over the lack of equity in the global stock-take decision, a proposed five-yearly review of the impact of countries' climate change actions Positives for India- A common uniform rulebook Expedite implementation of Paris agreement The rulebook will ensure that the signatories of the pact are held to standards. India being a tropical country, experience disproportionate wrath of climate change..expediting the agreement addresses India's climate change concern .
What might irk India developed countries led by the US blocked an acknowledgment of equity(CBDR) principles in the Katowice rulebook An emphasis on equity in the rulebook would have put greater pressure on developed countries in 2023 to do more than the developing ones $100 bn pledge of Paris agreement. India wanted a transparent roadmap on how these funds will be transferred The rulebook had to define what all will constitute 'finance', and how it will be reported and reviewed. But at Katowice, rules on financial contributions by developed countries have been diluted. Developed countries can manipulate ledger to show that they have contributed but in reality they might not have . a decision on the rules for the new carbon market has been postponed till next year's climate talks. UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a landmark scintific report which concluded that though it is possible to cap the global temperature rise at 1.5 C, the world needs to radically shift away from fossil fuels.The agreement toned down its acceptance. Developing countries and the small island states, are reportedly dissatisfied with the document's failure to secure a commitment from the developed nations after 2025 when their pledge to contribute $100 billion annually to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) expires
Qn. The Katowice rules -detailed, complex and science-based - seek to instil discipline and accountability in the climate regime.Critically Examine
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