TARGET JRF 2018 30 MOST IMPORTANT TOPICS LAST MINUTE REVISION BY TALVIR SINGH
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MAXIMS OF TEACHING
1. From simple to complex . The teacher should start with simple things and ideas, and these can be done with day- to-day examples, if possible. Then gradually, a teacher can move towards concepts and technical terms. This creates interest among learners to acquire new knowledge. This is helpful in better retention.
2. From known to unknown This is related to first maxim. Retention is always better if new knowledge can be linked with the known one.
3. From seen to unseen . The students should be imparted knowledge about the present; then they can understand the past and the future better.
4. From concrete to abstract " The mental development of student:s happens better with the concrete objects, they become familiar with and define micro- words for them at a later stage.
5. From particular to general . The students should be presented with examples first and then general laws and their derivations can be explained to them. The experiments and demonstrations serve this purpose.
6. From whole to part . Gestalt psychologists have proved that we first see the whole object and then its parts. For example, we first perceive the tree and then its trunk, branches, leaves, etc. Thus, the introduction or overview of the topics is important.
7. From indefinite to definite The teacher should help to transform indefinite knowledge into definite one and aim to clarify the doubts of students.
9. From analysis to synthesis Initially, the students have little or vague knowledge about the topics. Analysis means dividing problems into its constituent parts, and then, these are studied. " Synthesis means to understand by connecting the knowledge acquired through analyzing the parts. A teacher should use analytic-synthetic method.
11. Training of senses Senses such as sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch are gateways to knowledge. It is better if all or maximum of these senses can be applied in teaching. Montessori and Froebel are the main proponents of this maxim.
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