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TARGET JRF 2018 LAST MINUTE REVISION 30 MOST IMPORTANT TOPICS PAPER 1 TARGET 80+
RESEARCH ETHICS PART I
.ETHICS-Greek word: ethos-custom or convention, or the spirit of community Moral principles that govern a person's behaviour or the conducting of an activity: Oxford dictionary (2014) The branch of philosophy that deals with morality. Ethics is concerned with distinguishing between good and evil in the world, between right and wrong human actions, and between virtuous and non virtuous characteristics of people-The American Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (2005)
WHAT ETHICS IS AND WHAT IT IS NOT WHAT ETHICS IS . About commitment to WHAT ETHICS IS NOT About negative code of conduct, moral prohibitions, disciplinary rules . positive values - A communal activity, applyingA plvate matter,ito about rational principles and universal standards to social life subjective feelings, personal attitudes and choices About real power relations and responsible power sharing . Introspective self examination, or judging one's or other's moral state
Research Ethics defined . The moral principles guiding the conduct of any . The concept of right and wrong behaviour when . Ethics of the planning, conduct, and reporting of kind of research conducting a research research. It is clear that research ethics should include: Protections of human and animal subjects. (research-ethics.net/introduction/what/)
Missouri State. In general terms, "research ethics" is simply good citizenship applied to professional life Four basic tenants HONESTY conveying information truthfully and honoring commitments, - ACCURACY - reporting findings precisely and taking care to avoid errors, EFFICIENCYusing resources wisely and avoiding waste, -OBJECTIVITY-letting the facts speak for themselves and avoiding improper bias.
APPROACHES TO RESEARCH ETHICS
Deontology Ethical Skepticism Utilitarianism . Judges ethical issues . Ethical decisions are a . Judgments should on the basis of some universal code. matter of each individual's conscience Ethical rules are arbitrary and relative to individual people and cultures. depend on possible consequences of study, including benefits and costs . Certain actions are inherently unethical and should never be performed regardless of the circumstances. . This is the primary approach used by the federal government, most professional organizations, and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS IN RESEARCH . Protects the vulnerable group and other study . Participants are safeguarded from exploitation .Establishes risk-benefit ratio for study subjects participants .Ensures fullest respect, dignity, privacy, disclosure and fair treatment for subject . Builds capability of subjects to accept or reject participation in study
Main Stakeholders in Research Ethics - The researcher -The subject/participant. - The research/knowledge community - The university. - Regulatory bodies. Publishers. - Society at large.