TARGET JRF 2018 LAST MINUTE REVISION 30 MOST IMPORTANT TOPICS PAPER 1 TARGET 80+
Conceptual Research Empirical Research
Conceptual Research Conceptual research is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret the existing concepts. It is related to some abstract idea or theory.
Empirical Research . Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, which is without due regards for system and theory. It is a data-based research coming up with conclusions that are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. . In this research, the researcher must formulate a working hypothesis. He collects data to prove or disprove his hypothesis. The researcher is in control over the facts. Empirical research is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect other variables in one way or the another.
.Structured Approach Unstructured Approach
Structured Approach . 1. The structured approach to inquiry is usually classified as quantitative research. 2. Everything that forms the research process, such as objectives, design, sample, and the questions that a researcher plans to ask of respondents, is predetermined. * 3. It is more appropriate to determine the extent ofa problem, issue, or phenomenon by quantifying the variation. For example, how many people have a particular problem? How many people hold a particular attitude?
Unstructured Approach * 1. The unstructured approach to inquiry is . 2. It allows flexibility in all aspects of the * 3. It is more appropriate to explore the usually classified as qualitative research. research process. nature of a problem, issue, or phenomenon without quantifying it.
Correlation Research To Check the Degree of relationship b/w variables It is quantitative * It Range From -1 to 0 to +1 . +1 Perfect positive . -1 Perfect Negative
ACTION RESEARCH APPLIED RESEARCH SOLVE IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS LOCAL SCHOOL LEVEL PROBLEMS PRACTICAL IN NATURE IT CANNOT BE GENERALIZED
*Difference Between Action Research and Formal Research Action Research Formal or Applied Research Goal is to solve problem To test theory, produce for local concern Little training is required knowledge for wide pop Considerable Training is required. to conduct study. local concern. Carried out by To identify problem for To investigate larger Issues and concerns Carried out by expert researchers More rigorous For general applicability practitioners. Less rigorous For local applicability
Evaluation Research as an analytical tool, involves investigating a policy program to obtain all information pertinent to the assessment of its performance, both process and result. evaluation as a phase of the policy cycle more generally refers to the reporting of such information back to the into the policy-making process "the systematic assessment of the operation andlor the outcomes of a program or policy, compared to a set of explicit or implicit standards, as a means of contributing to the improvement of the program or policy
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