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Environment Book Summary Presented B Aartee Mishra
CHAPTER 1 ECOLOGY (Part -2)
Eco-System It is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. An Ecosystem is a complex set of relationship among the living resources, habitats, and residents of an area. It includes-plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, micro-organisms water, soil, and people When an ecosystem is healthy (i.e. sustainable) it means that all the elements live in balance and are capable of reproducing themselves. Ecosystem can be as small as a single tree or as large as entire forest. Components of Ecowstftne ecosystem is categorised c . The components of the ecosystem is categorised into abiotic of non- living and biotic of living components. Both the components of ecosystem and environment are same.
1. Abiotic Components . Abiotic components are the inorganic and nonliving parts of the world. The abiotic part consists of soil, water, air, and light energy etc. It also involves a large number of chemicals like oxygen, nitrogen etc. and physical processes including volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, forest fires, climates, and weather conditions. Abiotic factors Energy Energy from the sun is essential for maintenance of life. In the case of plants, the sun directly supplies the necessary energy. Rainfall Water is essential for all living beings. Majority of biochemical reactions take place in an aqueous medium
Temperature Temperature is a critical factor of the environment which greatly influences survival of organisms. Organisms can tolerate only a certain range of temperature and humidity. Atmosphere The earth's atmosphere is responsible for creating conditions suitable for the existence of a healthy biosphere on this planet. It is made up of 21 % oxygen, 78% nitrogen 0.038% carbon dioxide, and other inert gases (0.93% Argon, Neon etc) . Substratum Land is covered by soil and a wide variety of microbes, protozoa, fungi and small animals (invertebrates) thrive in it. Roots of plants pierce through the soil to tap water and nutrients.
Organisms can be terrestrial or aquatic. Terrestrial animals live on land. Aquatic plants, animals and microbes live in fresh water as well as in the sea. Some microbes live even in hot water vents under the sea. Materials: (i) Organic compound_such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, humic substances are formed from inorganic compound on decomposition. i Inorganic_compound such as carbon, carbon dioxide, water, sulphur, nitrates, phosphates, and ions of various metals are essential for organisms to survive. Latitude and altitude Latitude has a strong influence on an area's temperature, resulting in change of climates such as polar tropical, and temperate. These climates determine different natural biomes.