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Environment Book Summary Presented B Aartee Mishra
CHAPTER 2 FUNCTIONS OF AN ECOSYSTEM (Part-1)
If any of the intermediate food chain is removed the succeeding links of the chain will be affected largely. ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS .The steps of trophic levels expressed in a diagrammatic way are referred as ecological pyramids. The food producer forms the base of the pyramid and the top carnivore forms the tip. The ecological pyramids are of three categories. Pyramid of numbers, Pyramid of biomass, and Pyramid of energy or productivity.
. This deals with the relationship between the numbers of primary producers and consumers of different levels. It is a graphic representation of the total number of individuals of different species, belonging to each trophic level in an ecosystem. op Camioe Secondory Pyramid of numbers - upright > In this pyramid, the number of Camivoe individuals is decreased from lower level to higher trophic level. This type of pyramid can be seen in grassland ecosystem. Herbivores 1 oducer Upright lyanids ol Nombers (A) n Grass nd /B)o
Pyramid of numbers - inverted In this pyramid, the number of Hypeporasilesic Canivore individuals is increased from lower level to higher trophic level. E.g. Tree ecosystem. This is because the tree (primary producer) being few in number and would represent the base of the pyramid and the dependent herbivores .(Example Birds) in the next higher trophic level and it is followed by parasites in the next trophic level. Hyper parasites being at higher trophic level represents higher in number. Parasite Herbivores Herblvores Producers Producers nverted pindle shopped yramid of Number
Pyramid of biomass . Pyramid of biomass is usually determined by collecting all organisms occupying each trophic level separately and measuring their dry weight. This overcomes the size difference problem because all kinds of organisms at a trophic level are weighed. Biomass is measured in g/m2 Top Carnivore 2gm/m Herbivores Primary Carnivore 10 K Herbivores 00 Kg Producers Producers 1000 K9 Inverted Pyramid in an Aquatic Ecosystem Upright Pyramid of biomass in o Terrestrial Ecosyster
Pyramid of Energy Pyramid Of Energy To compare the functional roles of the trophic levels in an ecosystem, an energy pyramid is most 0.1% . Crocodile Tertiary Consumer suitable. 1%. Bonobo An energy pyramid represents the Secondary Consumer) amount of energy at each trophic level and loss of energy at each transfer to another trophic level. 10%-Insect rvae Primary C .Hence the pyramid is always 100%- Rainforest Leaves upward, with a large energy base Producers) at the bottom. Detrivores and Decomposers acquire energy from all souces