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LIVE :20:4 Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316)oos He confiscated the properties/of the nobles. The intelligence system was reorganized and all the secretactivities of th% nobles were immediatel e Sultan was totally stopped. The public sal tre ag0 Social gath Sultan were forbi was free from rebelli tivities without the permission of ughlag den By suc s te wise foo f Alauddin hal ained a large permanent standing army and paid them in cash from th royal treasury not yet mam According the Ferishta, he recruited 4.75.000 cavalrymen. He introduced the system randing of horses) and prepared huliva (descriptive list of soldiers r In order to ensure maximum efficiency strict review of army fgom time to time was no maT carried out Start a poi Confirm Details UPSC CSE UPSC CSE Subscription 6 months IT l (1296-1316) He cocfacated the email@example.com Apply 720 credits Redeem credits for up to 10% discount APPLY ( 30+ hours of Structured co 30+ top educ Subscription Fee 9 CGST Use tais code to oet cliscountNew courses Learn more
Environment Book Summary Presented B Aartee Mishra
HOUSEHOLD AIR POLLUTION 3.8 milliOrT rom n ustid br die prematurely every year from household air pollution from cooking (2016).Household air pollution is mostly created by using kerosene and solid fuels such as wood with polluting stoves, open fires and lamps. 18% from stroke Women and children are the most at risk. 27% from ischaemic heart disease 2096 from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease <COPD) 8% from lung cancer 27% are due to pneumonia e 25% World Health Organization CLEAN AIR FOR HEALTH #AirPollution
Formaldehyde Mainly from carpets, particle boards, and insulation foam. It causes irritation to the eyes, nose and allergies. Radon It is a gas that is emitted naturally by the soil. Due to modem houses having poor ventilation, it is confined inside the house and causes lung cancers. FLY ASH Ash is produced whenever combustion of solid material takes place. Nearly 73% of India's total installed power generation capacity is thermal, of which 90% is coal-based generation, with diesel, wind, gas, and steam making up the rest. Composition 1. Aluminium silicate (in.large amounts) 2. silicon dioxide (Si02) and 3. Calcium oxide (Cao)
Advantages: cement can be replaced by fly ash upto 35%, thus reducing the cost of construction, making roads, etc. Fly ash bricks are light in weight and offer high strength and durability.. Fly ash is a better fill material for road embankments and in concrete roads. Fly ash can increase the crop yield and it also enhances water holding capacity of the land. POLICY MEASURES The Ministry of Environment and Forests vide its notification in 2009, has made it mandatory to use Fly Ash based products in all construction projects, road embankment works and low lying land filling works within 100 kms radius of Thermal Power Station.
Effects of Air Pollutants on Materials: 1. NO2 fades away dyes in clothes like cotton, rayon, causes cracks in rubber and produces photochemical smog with 03 and PAN. 2. CO2 damages fabric, leather, paint, paper and historic monuments. H2SO4 attacks marble causing stone leprosy. The Caso,, so formed on the surface of masonry is twice as bulky as CaCO3 which looks leprous. Hydrocarbons induce chemical alterations in textile, paper, rubber and polymers making them more brittle and fragile. Control Measures > Selection of suitable fuel (e.g. fuel with low sulphur content) and its efficient utilization > Modifications in industrial processes and/or equipments to reduce emissiorn. > Selection of suitable manufacturing site and zoning. e.g. setting of industries at a distance of residential areas, installation of tall chimneys.
The main sources of water pollution are as follows: 1) Community waste water 2) Industrial Wastes 3) Agricultural sources .Fertilizers contain major plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and Putrescibilitv is the process of decomposition of organic matter present in water by microorganisms using oxygen. potassium. Excess fertilizers may reach the ground water by leaching or may be mixed with surface water of rivers, lakes and ponds by runoff and drainage. . Pesticides include insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, rodenticides and soil fumigants The animal excreta such as dung, wastes from poultry farms, piggeries and slaughter houses etc.
4) Thermal Pollution: . The main sources are the thermal and nuclear power plants. The power plants use water as coolant and release hot waters to the original source. Sudden rise in temperature kills fishes and other aquatic animals 5) Underground water pollution: . In India at many places, the ground water is threatened with contamination due to seepage from industrial and municipal wastes and effluents, sewage channels and agricultural runoff Oil Spills Oil spills is one of the most dangerous of all water pollutants. Oil spills from tankers at sea or leaks from underground storage tanks on land are very difficult to control as oil tends to spread very fast, affecting a large area in a very short time.
CHAPTER 5 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION (Part -2)
Disease Caused by Drinking Polluted Water Cholera Typhoid Giardia Diarrhoea Hepatitis A