Aartee Mishra is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Environment Book Summary Presented B Aartee Mishra
RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION Radioactive Pollution Radioactivity is a phenomenon of spontaneous emission of proton (a- particles), electrons (IS-particles) and gamma rays (short wave electromagnetic waves) due to disintegration of atomic nuclei of some elements. These cause radioactive pollution. Types of radiation particles 1. Alpha particles, can be blocked by a piece of paper and human skin. 2. Beta particles can penetrate through skin, while can be blocked by some pieces of glass and metal. 3. Gamma rays can penetrate easily to human skin and damage cells on its way through, reaching far, and can only be blocked by a very thick, strong, massive piece of concrete.
Sources of radiation pollution Natural Man-made Industrial process Wastes from nuclear reactors Testing of nuclear weapons Use in medical practice Solar Cosmic Terrestrial Outdoor Indoor -X-ray examination Radiation therapy Occupational exposure Soil Building material Natural gas Outside air Rocks Soi Television
SOURCES Natural They include cosmic rays from space and terrestrial radiations from radio- nuclides present in earth's crust such as radium-224, uranium-238, thorium-232, potassium-40, carbon-14, etc. Man-made Nuclear power plants Nuclear weapon EFFECTS The effects of radioactive pollutants depend upon i. Half-life ii. Energy releasing capacity iii. Rate of diffusion
iv. Rate of deposition of the pollutant. v. Various environmental factors such as wind, temperature, rainfall also influence their effects Non-ionising radiations: They include short-wave radiations such as ultraviolet rays, which forms a part of solar radiation. They damage eyes which may be caused by reflections from coastal sand, snow (snow blindness) directly looking towards sun during eclipse. lonising radiations. They include X-rays, cosmic rays and atomic radiations '(radiations emitted by radioactive elements). lonising radiations have high penetration power and cause Leakage of macro molecules.
Control Measures Prevention is the best control measure as there is no cure available for radiation damage All safety measures should be strictly enforced. Leakage of radioactive elements should be totally checked. .Safe disposal of radioactive waste.
LIVE :20:4 Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316)oos He confiscated the properties/of the nobles. The intelligence system was reorganized and all the secretactivities of th% nobles were immediatel e Sultan was totally stopped. The public sal tre ag0 Social gath Sultan were forbi was free from rebelli tivities without the permission of ughlag den By suc s te wise foo f Alauddin hal ained a large permanent standing army and paid them in cash from th royal treasury not yet mam According the Ferishta, he recruited 4.75.000 cavalrymen. He introduced the system randing of horses) and prepared huliva (descriptive list of soldiers r In order to ensure maximum efficiency strict review of army fgom time to time was no maT carried out Start a poi Confirm Details UPSC CSE UPSC CSE Subscription 6 months IT l (1296-1316) He cocfacated the email@example.com Apply 720 credits Redeem credits for up to 10% discount APPLY ( 30+ hours of Structured co 30+ top educ Subscription Fee 9 CGST Use tais code to oet cliscountNew courses Learn more
How do we dispose of nuclear waste? At or near surface Geological repositories Open, retrievable Sealed Centralized Distributed - Geological disposition - Geological disposal Safe if resources are continually committed Safe with reduced active measures