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Environment Book Summary Presented Bu Aartee Mishra
Tropical Semi-evergreen forests .Semi-evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the Eastern Himalayas. Such forests have a mixture of the wet evergreen trees and the moist deciduous trees. The forest is dense and is filled with a large variety of trees of both types Tropical Moist deciduous forests Moist deciduous forests are found throughout India except in the western and the north-western regions. The trees are tall, have broad trunks, branching trunks and roots to hold them firmly to the ground. Some of the taller trees shed their leaves in the dry season. . There is a layer of shorter trees and evergreen shrubs in the undergrowth. These forests are dominated by sal and teak, along wit!h mango,bamboo, and rosewood..
Littoral and swamp Littoral and swamp forests are found along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the delta area of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. They have roots that consist of soft tissue so that the plant can breathe in the water. Tropical Dry deciduous forest .Dry deciduous forests are found throughout the northern part of the country except in the North-East. It is also found in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The canopy of the trees does not normally exceed 25 metres. The common trees are the sal, a variety of acacia, and bamboo.
Tropical Thom forests This type is found in areas with black soil: North,West, Central, and South India. The trees do not grow beyond 10 metres. Spurge, caper, and cactus are typical of this region. Tropical Dry evergreen forest Dry evergreen are found along Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka coast. It is mainly hard-leaved evergreen trees with fragrant flowers, along with a few deciduous trees. Sub tropical Broad-leaved forests Broad-leaved forests are found in the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats, along the Silent Valley. There is a marked difference in the form of vegetation in the two areas. In the Silent Valley, the poonspar, cinnamon, rhododendron, and fragrant grass are predominant.
India Natural vegetation Vegetation of India can be divided into five types cold desert . Tropical Thomy vegetation Alpine and sub-alpine Himalyan dry temperate Himalayan moist temperate Sub-tropical coniferous Hot desert * Tropical Evergreen forest Tropical Deciduous forest * Thorny Bushes Mountain Vegetation Mangrove Forests. Tropical moist deciduous Tropical wet evergreen Tropical semi evergreen Tropical dry deciduous
Sub tropical Pine forests .Pine forests are found in the steep dry slopes of the Shivalik Hills, Western and Central Himalayas, Khasi, Naga, and Manipur Hills. The trees predominantly found in these areas are the chir, oak, rhododendron, and pine as well as sal, arnla, and laburnum are found in the lower regions. Sub tropical Dry evergreen forests .Dry evergreen forests normally have a prolonged hot and dry season and a cold winter. It generally has evergreen trees with shining leaves that have a varnished look. These forests are found in the Shivalik Hills and foothills of the Himalayas up to a height of 1000 metres. Montane Wet temperate forests In the North, Montane wet temperate forests are found in the region to the east of Nepal into Arunachal Pradesh, receiving a minimum rainfall of 2000 mm.
In the North, there are three layers of forests: the higher layer has mainly coniferous, the middle layer has deciduous trees such as the oak and the lowest layer is covered by rhododendron and champa. Himalayan Moist temperate Forest This type spreads from the Western Himalayas to the Eastern Himalayas. The trees found in the western section are broad-leaved oak, brown oak, walnut, rhododendron, etc. Himalayan Dry temperate Forest . This type is found in Lahul, Kinnaur, Sikkim, and other parts of the Himalayas. There are predominantly coniferous trees, along with broad- leaved tree & such as the oak, maple, and ash. At higher elevation, fir, uniper, deodar, and chilgoza are found.
Moist Alpine scrub Moist alpines are found all along the Himalayas arid on the higher hills near the Myanmar border. It has a low scrub, dense evergreen forest, consisting mainly of rhododendron and birch. Mosses and fern cover the ground in patches. This region receives heavy snowfall. Dry alpine scrub Dry alpines are found from about 3000 metres to about 4900 metres. Dwarf plants predominate mainly the black juniper, the drooping juniper, honeysuckle, and willow.