Aartee Mishra is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Environment Book Summary Presented B Aartee Mishra
Ecotone is a zone of junction between two or more diverse ecosystems. For e.g. the mangrove forests represent an ecotone between marine and terrestrial ecosystem. Other examples are - grassland, estuary and river bank Grass Land Forest Characteristics of Ecotone Ecotone It may be very narrow or quite wide has conditions intermediate to the adjacent ecosystems. Hence it is a zone of tension. It is linear as it shows progressive increase in species composition of one in coming community and a simultaneous decrease in species of the other out going adjoining community. A well developed ecotones contain some organisms which are entirely different from that of the adjoining communities.
EDGE EFFECT Sometimes the number of species and the population density of some of the species is much greater in this zone than either community. This is called edge effect. The organisms which occur primarily or most abundantly in this zone are known as edge species. In the terrestrial ecosystems edge effect is especially applicable to birds Land ecosystem Transitional ecosystem Aquatic ecosystem Ecotone marshland EcosystemI Ecosystem I
3 species cies 3 species
Edge effect An "edge" is the boundary or interface between two biological communities or between dfferent landscape elements. refer to the changes in population or community structure s that occur at the boundary of two habitats
Niche. A niche is the unique functional role or place of a species in an ecosystem. It is a description of all the biological, physical and chemical actors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy and reproduce. A niche is unique for a species, which means no two species have exact identical niches. If we have to conserve species in its native habitat we should have knowledge about the niche requirements of the species and should ensure that all requirements of its niche are fulfilled. Types of Niche 1. Habitat niche where it lives 2. Food niche-what is eats or decomposes & what species it competes with 3. Reproductive niche -how and when it reproduces. 4. Physical & chemical niche temperature, land shape, land slope, humidity & other requirement