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Environment Book Summary Presented Bu Aartee Mishra
CHAPTER 3 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY (Part-1)
TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY . The interrelations between organisms and environment on the land constitute" Terrestrial Ecology". Due to variation in the topographic features of valleys, mountains and slopes, certain differences occur. These differences are reflected in both the material and biotic diversities. Altitudinal and latitudinal variations cause shifts and differences in the climatic patterns. Due to varied climate, the plant and animal life existing in different terrestrial areas vary which result in differentiation of ecosystem as segments within the large biosphere. The most important limiting factors of the terrestrial ecosystems are moisture and temperature. TUNDRA .The word tundra means a "barren land" since they are found where environmental conditions are very severe.
There are two different types of Tundra Biomes: The Arctic/Polar Tundra: Found near the north and south polar regions A young biome that was created in Pleistocene Eocene. he Alpine Tundra: Found on mountainsides and high-elevation plateaus , Both types of tundra are not restricted to any specific region or zone In alpine biomes angiosperm plants is more than other. Arctic tundra biomes is more wide than alpine tundra
Locations Arctic Alpine Located at latitudes 55 to 70 North The arctic tundra is mainly found around the north pole, or northern regions on the world The alpine tundra doesn't have a set latitudes, this biomes location is dependent on the elevation of the land. Most alpinetundra biomes are located on the world's great mountain ranges like, Andes, Himalayas, Alps, and Pyrenees.
Plant Species in the Arctic Tundra Biome lants survive the cold climate of the Tundra by growing short and in groups. Tvpes of Tundra Plants: 1. Lichens 2. Mosses 3. Small Shrubs 4. Calliergon giganteum 5. Dwarf Plants 6. Stunted Plants 7. Thistle Plants 8. Yellow Flower 9. Grasses 1o. Alpine White
There are two types of tundra- arctic Tundra vegetation and alpine. . Distribution: Arctic tundra extends as a continuous belt below the polar ice cap and above the tree line in the northern hemisphere. It occupies the northern fringe of Canada, Alaska, European Russia, Siberia and island group of Arctic Ocean. On the south pole, tundra is very small since most of it is covered by ocean Alpine tundra occurs at high mountains above the tree line. Brches Junipers Willow tree Mosses chens
Since mountains are found at all latitudes therefore alpine tundra shows day and night temperature variations. FOREST ECOSYSTEM .The forest ecosystem includes a complex assemblage of different kinds of biotic communities. Optimum conditions such as temperature and ground moisture are responsible for the establishment of forest communities. Coniferous forest (boreal forest): Cold regions with high rainfall, strong seasonal climates with long winters and short summers are characterised by boreal coniferous forest This is characterised by evergreen plant species such as Spruce, fir and pine trees, etc and byanimals such as the lynx, wolf, bear, red fox, porcupine, squirrel, and amphibians like Hyla,Rana, etc
Tropical & subtropical moist broadieaf forests Tropical & subtropical dry broadleaf forests Tropical & subtropical coniferous forests Deserts & xeric shrublands Temperate grasslands, savannas, & shrublands Montane grasslands & shrublands Temperate conifer forests Flooded grasslands & savannas Boreal forests/taiga Mangroves Tundra Mediterranean forests, woodlands, & scrub