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Environment Book Summary Presented Bu Aartee Mishra
Environmental mpact Assessment CHAPTER 6
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT The idea of Environmental Impact Assessment is to study and understand the environmental effects of a development before proceeding. It helps to predict the policy or or project programme beforehand. Thus EIA is a tool for ensuring the optimal use of natural resources and sustainable development.
Environmental status without project Project whIA EIA bridges the gap Project done without EIA Time
.Figure clearly depicts the possible environment degradation with and without Environmental Impact Assessment for any project humans, biotic environment, soil, water, air, landscape etc. human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. EIA has to address the direct and indirect effects of the development on It should take into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and 71 THE NEED FOR EIA Every anthropogenic activity has impact on the environment. More often It IS harmful to the environment than benign. However mankind as it is developed today cannot live without taking up these activities for his food, security and other needs. .Consequently, there is a need to harmonise developmental activities with the environmental concerns.
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is one of the tools available with the planners to achieve the above-mentioned goal It is desirable to ensure that the development options under In doing so, environmental consequences must be characterised early in .The objective of EIA is to foresee the potential environmental problems consideration are sustainable. the project cycle and accounted for in the project design. that would arise out of a proposed development and address them in the project's planning and design stage. The EIA process should then allow for the communication of this information to: vthe project proponent; vthe regulatory agencies; and, vall stakeholders and interest groups
Project Initiation Present Status -(without project) Adverse Impadct "With project Time Anticipated environment impact of development project.
INDIAN POLICIES REQUIRING EIA The environmental impact assessment in India was started in 1976-77 when the Planning Commission asked the then Department of Science and Technology to examine the river-valley projects from environmental angle. This was subsequently extended to cover those projects, which required approval of the Public Investment Board. .These were administrative decisions, and lacked the legislative support. The Government of India enacted the Environment (Protection) Act on 23rd May 1986. To achieve the objectives of the Act, one of the decisions that were taken is to make environmental impact assessment statutory. After following the legal procedure, a notification was issued on 27th January 1994 and subsequently amended on 4th May 1994, 10th April 1997 and 27th January 2000 (Annex 1) making environmental impact assessment statutory for 30 activities.
This is the principal piece of legislation governing environmental impact assessment Besides this the Government of India under Environment (Protection) Act 1986 issued a number of other notifications, which are related to environmental impact assessment. These are limited to specific geographical areas. THE SALIENT FEATURES OF EIA NOTIFICATION, 1994 Any person who desires to undertake any new project in any part of India or the expansion or modernization of any existing industry or project listed in the Schedule-l shall submit an application to the Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi
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