Aartee Mishra is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
SOIL POLLUTION .Soil is a thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. Soil pollution is defined as the addition of substances to the soil, which adversely affect physical, chemical andd biological properties of soil and reduces its productivity. Causes > Indiscriminate use of fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides and herbicides >Dumping of large quantities of solid waste > Deforestation and soil erosion. > Pollution Due to Urbanisation. Source Industrial Wastes: mercury, lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, cynides, etc
CAUSES Soil Pollution NDUSTRIAL WASTE BAD SOIL MANAGEMENT EFFECTS DECREASE IN SOIL EROSION TOXIC DUST FUEL LEAKAGE -S SOIL FERTILITY
.Pesticides .Fertilizers and manures Discarded materials Radioactive wastes Types of Soil Pollution I. Agricultural Soil Pollution Il. Pollution due to industrial effluents and solid wastes III. Pollution due to urban activities Effects of soil pollution Reduced soil fertility Ecological imbalance
Control measures Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide use-_Zone * Use of bio pesticides, bio fertilizers. Category of Area/ Limits in dB(A) Leq Day Time |Night Time 6 a.m. to 10 10 p.m to 6 Organic farming p.m. 75 a.m A. Industrial Area 70 Four R's: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle B. Commercial Area Residential Area 65 45 Afforestation and Reforestation D. Silence Zone 50 40 NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is an unpleasant noise created by people or machines that can be annoying, distracting, intrusive, and/or physically painful. A person's hearing can be damaged if exposed to noise levels over 75 dB over a prolonged period of time. The World Health Organization recommends that the sound level indoors should be less than 30 dB.
Impacts of noise Annoyance Physiological effects Loss of hearing Sleeplessness Damage to material . Control at source >Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors Maintenance of automobiles Control over vibration > Prohibition on usage of loud speakers. Selection and maintenance of machinery
RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION Radioactive Pollution Radioactivity is a phenomenon of spontaneous emission of proton (a- particles), electrons (IS-particles) and gamma rays (short wave electromagnetic waves) due to disintegration of atomic nuclei of some elements. These cause radioactive pollution. Types of radiation particles 1. Alpha particles, can be blocked by a piece of paper and human skin. 2. Beta particles can penetrate through skin, while can be blocked by some pieces of glass and metal. 3. Gamma rays can penetrate easily to human skin and damage cells on its way through, reaching far, and can only be blocked by a very thick, strong, massive piece of concrete.