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Environment Book Summary Presented B Aartee Mishra
Animal diversity in India THE RED DATA BOOK Species which are considered threatened are listed by various organisations including some private organisations, likewise, Red Data Book is published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) and provides information on research, studies and also helps in monitoring the program on rare and threatened species. e ED IUCN .Red Data Book was first issued in 1966, and it is continually updated by IUCN which is based on Morges, Switzerland
Extinct (EX) Extinct inthe Wild (EW) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (U) Near Thre tened (NT) Least Cancern (LC) Adequate data) (Threatened) (Evaluated) Daa Dficient DD) ExtinctThreatene Least Concern Nct Evaluated (NE EX EW CR EN VU NT LC Extinct in the wild Near Threatened Figure 1. Structure of the categories.
.Near threatened (NT) - Likely to become endangered in the near future. . Least concern (LC) - Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at-risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category. . Data deficient (DD) - Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction. Not evaluated (NE) Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria. Pygmy Hog (Porcula salvania) Is the world's smallest wild pig. This species constructs a nest throughout the year. It is one of the most useful indicators of the management status of grassland habitats
' The grasslands where the pygmy hog resides are crucial for the survival of other threatened species such as Indian Rhinoceros, Swamp Deer, Wild Buffalo, Hispid Hare, Bengal Florican and Swamp Francolin Habitat: Relatively undisturbed, tall 'terai' grasslands. Distribution: Previously spread across India, Nepal, and Bhutan. Now only found in Assam (Manas Wildlife Sanctuary and its buffer reserves).
Andaman White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura andamanensis) Distribution: It is endemic to the South Andaman Island of India. They are usually active by twilight or in the night. . Threats: Habitat loss due to selective logging, natural disasters such as tsunami and drastic weather change are thought to contribute to current population declines. Kondana Rat (Millardia kondana) Distribution: Known only from the small Sinhagarh Plateau (about one km2), near Pune in Maharashtra. It is a nocturnal burrowing rodent that is found only in . India.
Habitat: Tropical and subtropical dry deciduous forests and tropical scrub. Threats: Major threats are habitat loss, overgrazing of vegetation and disturbance from tourism and recreational activities. Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat (Cremnomys elvira) It is a medium sized, nocturnal and burrowing rodent endemic to India. Habitat: Tropical dry deciduous shrub land forest, seen in rocky areas . . Habitat/distribution: Known only from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Recorded from an elevation of about 600 m above mean sea level.
Threats: Major threats are habitat loss, conversion of forests and fuel wood collection. Namdapha Flying Squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi) It is a unique (the only one in its genus) flying squirrel that is restricted to a single valley in the Namdapha N. . (or) W.L.S. in Arunachal Pradesh. Habitat: Tropical forest. Habitat/distribution: Found only in Namdapha Tiger Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh. Threats: Hunted for food.
Malabar Civet (Viverra civettina) It is endemic to India and was first reported from Travancore, Kerala. It is nocturnal in nature and found exclusively in the Western Ghats. Habitat: Wooded plains and hill slopes of evergreen rainforests. Habitat/distribution: Western Ghats. . Threats: Deforestation and commercial plantations are major threats.
Kashmir stag/hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) It subspecies of Red Deer which is native to India. Habitat: Dense riverine forests, high valleys, and mountains of the Kashmir valley and northern Chamba in Himachal Pradesh State animal of Jammu and Kashmir. Threat: habitat destruction, over- grazing by domestic livestock, and poaching.
Dhole/ Asiatic wild dog or Indian wild dog (Cuon alpinus) Distribution: They occur in most of India south of the Ganges, particularly in the Central Indian Highlands and the Western and Eastern Ghats of the southern states. In north-east India, they inhabit Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, and West Bengal. Threats: Habitat loss, depletion of its prey base, competition from other predators, persecution and possibly diseases from domestic and feral dogs. . Eld's deer/ thamin or brow-antlered deer (Panolia eldii) . Distribution: Keibul Lamjao National Park (KLNP), Manipur. Threats: Overgrazing, loss of grassland habitat.
Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) Primate, is an Old World monkey Distribution small region of western Assam and in the neighboring foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. .Threats: Deforestation, human encroachments. Himalayan / White-bellied Musk Deer Habitat: Kashmir, Kumaon and Sikkim. Threat: poaching & illegal trade for its musk. Only males produce the musk.
Nilgiri langur/ Nilgiri leaf monkey (Trachypithecus johnii) Habitat: Hilly areas of Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu and Kerala . Threats: Habitat degradation, development activities, introduction of exotic tree species. Chita / Tibetian Antelope .Status- Near Threatened. . Habitat : Tibet cold desert. Threat: The chiru is threatened by hunting for its fine wool which is used to make the shahtoosh scarves, meat, magnificent horns.
Nilgiri tahr The Nilgiri tahr is the largest of the three tahr species, inhabit montane grasslands of Western Ghats. It is the state animal of Tamil Nadu. Threats: Habitat loss, overgrazing, illegal hunting. .
Black buck > Status vulnerable >- Habitat - Grass land >- Threat excessive hunting for meat and sporting trophies, as well as habitat loss. Black buck show sexual dimorphism. Gaur >- The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called Indian bison, is a large bovine native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. The species is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.. >- Gaur are largely confined to evergreen forests or semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests, but also occur in deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range
Oriental small-clawed otter/ Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea), Otter any of 13 living species of semiaquatic mammals which feed on fish and shellfish, and also other invertebrates, amphibians, birds and small mammals. It is a smallest otter species in the world . It lives in mangrove swamps and freshwater wetlands. Status vulnerable. Threat - habitat loss, pollution and hunting. Dugong (Dugong dugon) also called as sea cow. Status - vulnerable. Threat - hunting (meat and oil), habitat degradation, and fishing-related fatalities. Indus river dolphin Habitat I distribution - Indus River in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries.
ENDANGERED MARINE MAMMALS Freshwater / river dolphin Distribution: India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin and Indus river dolphin. Threats: Unintentional killing through entanglement in fishing gear; habitat loss and degradation water development projects (barrages, high dams, and embankments), pollution industrial waste and pesticides, municipal sewage discharge and noise from vessel traffic.
Ganges river dolphin Habitat: Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal