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Environment Book Summary Presented B Aartee Mishra
CHAPTER 8 Indian biodiversity diverse landscape (Part-1)
"Biodiversity starts in the distant past and it points toward the future ifi Frans Lanting MAY 22 INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
Indian biodiversity diverse landscape India is one of the recognized mega diverse countries of the world. In terms of species richness, India ranks seventh in mammals, ninth in birds and fifth in reptiles. In terms of endemism of vertebrate groups, India's position is tenth in birds with 69 species, fifth in reptiles with 156 species and seventh in amphibians with 110 species. India's share of crops is 44% as compared to the world average of 11 %. India also has 23.39 percent of its geographical area under forest and tree cover. Of the 34 globally identified biodiversity hotspots, India harbours two hotspots, i.e., Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka .
INDIA REPRESENTS: a) Two 'Realms b) Five Biomes c) Ten Bio-geographic Zones d) Twenty five Bio-geographic provinces Realms: Biogeographic realms are arge of the 8 biogeographic realms spatial regionswithin which Nearctic ecosystems share a broadly similar biota.Realm is a continent or sub continent sized area with unifying features of geography and fauna & flora. The Indian region is Afrotropic Indomalaya Australasia Neotropic composed of two realms.They are: cni and Antarctic ecozones
1) the Himalayan region represented by Palearctic Realm and 2) the rest of the sub-continent represented by Malayan Realm Biomes of India: . The term biome means the main groups of plants and animals living in areas of certain climate patterns. It includes the way in which animals, vegetation and soil interact together. The plants and animals of that area have adapted to that environment. The five biomes of India are: 1) Tropical Humid Forests 2) Tropical Dry or Deciduous Forests (including Monsoon Forests) 3) Warm deserts and semi-deserts 4) Coniferous forests and 5) Alpine meadows.
BIOGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION OF INDIA: ZONES 1 TRANS-HIMALAYA 6. DECCAN PENINSULA 7.GANGETIC PLAIN 8. COASTS 9. NORTH-EAST 10.1SLANDS 2. HIMALAYA 4. SEMI-ARID S. WESTERN GHATS 300 Kilometer
Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. There are 10 biogeographic zones which are distinguished clearly in India. They are as follows-- 1) Trans-Himalayas. An extension of the Tibetan plateau, harboring high- altitude cold desert in Laddakh (J&K) and Lahaul Spiti (H.P) comprising 57 % of the country's landmass. 2) Himalayas. The entire mountain chain running from north-western to northeastern India, comprising a diverse range of biotic provinces and biomes, 7.2 % of the country's landmass. 3) Desert. The extremely arid area west of the Aravalli hill range, comprising both the salty desert of Gujarat and the sand desert of Rajasthan. 6.9% of the country's landmass. 4) Semi-arid. The zone between the desert and the Deccan plateau, including the Aravalli hill range 15.6 % of the country's landmass.
5) Western ghats. The hill ranges and plains running along the western coastline, south of the Tapti river, covering an extremely diverse range of biotic provinces and biomes. 5.8% of the country's landmass. 6) Deccan peninsula. The largest of the zones, covering much of the southern and southcentral plateau with a predominantly deciduous vegetation. 4.3 % of the country's landmass. 7) Gangetic plain. Defined by the Ganges river system, these plains are relatively homogenous. 11 % of the country's landmass. 8) North-east India. The plains and non-Himalayan hill ranges of north eastern India, with a wide variation of vegetation. 5.2% of the country's landmass. 9) Islands. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, with a highly diverse set of biomes. 0.03% of the country's landmass
10) Coasts. A large coastline distributed both to the west and east, with distinct differences between the two; Lakshadeep islands are included in this with the percent area being negligible Biogeography is divided into branches: 1. Phyto-geography (plant geography) deals with origin, distribution and environmental interrelationships of plants. Zoogeography deals with the migration and distribution of animals. 2. Bio-geographic provinces. Bio-geographic Province is a eco systematic or biotic subdivision of realms. India is divided into 25 bio geographic zones Vertebrates It comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata.
Have scales and fins rLay many eggs Amphibians ~Cold blooded Live on land & water Webbed feet Breathe with lungs and gills Have dry skin Usually lay eggs Ear holes instead of ears *4 legs or no legs Aves Warm blooded * Have feathers and wings Lay eggs Have2 legs Ear holes instead of ears Mammals " Warm blooded *Have hair or fur * Breathe with lungs Moist smooth skin Four legs (sometimes none) Lay many eggs Reptiles ~ Cold blooded Have scales
Annelids Annelids have bodies that are divided into segments. They have very well-developed internal organs. Found almost anywhere in the world. " They don't have any limbs. E.g: earthworms, leeches, roundworms, etc. Mollusks Most mollusks have a soft, skin-like organ covered with a hard outside shell. Some mollusks live on land, such as the snail and slug. Other mollusks live in water, such as the oyster, mussel, clam, squid ano RS AS octopus. Echinoderms Echinoderms are marine animals that live in the ocean
Trans Himalay Himatuy Som-Arild Westren Ghats Daccan Peninsuls Gangetie Plain Coasts North Eas Islands
Palearctic Nearctic Oceania Oceania Afrotropic Indo-Malay Australasia Neotropic Antarcti Cool conifer forest Grassland/steppe Tundra Temp. mixed forest Hot desert Wooded tundra Temp. deciduous forestScrubland Trop. woodland Tropical forest Boreal forest Warm mixed forest Savanna