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Environment Book Summary Presented Bu Aartee Mishra
CHAPTER 3 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY (Part -2)
DEFORESTATION Indiscriminate felling of trees as a result industrialization, mining operations, and use of wood for domestic and other purposes, have caused heavy depletion of forests. of urbanization, Causes 1) Shifting cultivation: In this practice a patch of land is cleared, vegetation is burned and the ash is mixed with the soil thus adding nutrients to the soil
2.Development project: The human population have increased considerably, so with their requirements. Development projects like the hydroelectric projects, large dams and reservoirs, laying down of railway lines and roads are not only extremely beneficial, but they are also linked with Several environmental problems. 3.Fuel Requirements The increasing demand for firewood with ever growing population increases greater pressure on the forests, which results in increased intensity of deforestation. 4.Raw Materials Wood is used as a raw material by various industries for making paper, plywood, furniture, match sticks, boxes, crates, packing cases, etc.
.Deforestation also results from overgrazing, agriculture, mining, urbanization, flood, fire, pest, diseases, defence and communication activities. How it affects Deforestation results in an immediate lowering of ground water level and in long-term reduction of precipitation. Due to deforestation, this natural reuse cycle is broken and water is lost through rapid run of. Much of the mining activity in India is being carried out in forest regions. The obvious result is deforestation and erosion. Forests recycle moisture from soil into their immediate atmosphere by transpiration where it again precipitates as rain.
GRASSLAND ECOSYTEM The grasslands are found where rainfall is about 25-75 cm per year, not enough to support a forest, but more than that of a true desert. Typical grasslands are vegetation formations that are generally found in temperate climates.ln India, they are found mainly in the high Himalayas. The rest of India's grasslands are mainly composed of steppes and savannas.
Types of Grasslands .Based on climatic conditions there are six types of grasslands found in the different regions of the Indian subcontinent. Four major types of INDIA grasslands are discussed here. Semi-arid zone (The Sehima-dichanthium type) SEHIMA-DICHAN It covers the northern portion of Gujarat, Rajasthan (excluding Aravallis), western Uttar Pradesh, ENC-LAS. THEM ARUND. TEMPERATE-ALPINE MIXED ZONE OF 1 &3 Delhi and Punjab. 5 Grassland types of India