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14th June - The Hindu Editorial - Part-2 (in Hindi)
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Subhodeep Das
Dream of Achieving Big l YouTube & Facebook : UPSC360

Unacademy user
Sir as I have studied that sati was abolished by raja Ram Mohan Roy during the period of Akbar-2. but in this video it is different!! please clear my doubt! very thankful for your wonderful lecture
Utsav Soni
a year ago
bro learnt it carefully
Anjor Ganvir
10 months ago
Akbar did not fully abolished sati He said that woman should not be forced to do sati if she is willing to do she can do . And by raja ram mohan roy.. He abolished full sati..
it was a great lesson given by you...u teach very well...pls make notes of less words only the bullet points...because later we will not be having time for reading this much for revision... thank you so much....I read newspaper daily but the way you explained it has given a new correct approach to my understanding...plz make bullet point or least words slides...thanks ..have a nice time!
simple and very well explain
thank you so much sir
  1. An improbable friendship The missing tiers The missing tiers Golden lc As the Central Government's Smart Cities mission completes three years this month, it's the right time to examine India's tryst with municipal governance S. UBHODEEP

  2. Municipalities are not yet autonomous units that can be genuinely called as the "third tier" of government in India's federal system Even after the 73rd and 74th Amendments, India has effectively only two levels of governmentUnion and State. The disempowerment and depoliticisation of urban local government has happened in multiple ways UBHODEEP


  4. Most significant Constitutional Amendments 73rd (mandating the creation of panchayats) and 74th (creation of municipalities) UBHODEEP

  5. Reality: Failure of States to implement the provisions of the 74th Amendment. implementation failure local governments are financially constrained and do not have the administrative capacity to carry out its functions. Disempowerment and depoliticisation - urban local governments Loophole in municipal governance has been exploited by State governments Elected representatives at the city-level - powerless work under State government. In most municipal corporations, while the mayor is the ceremonial head, the executive powers of the corporation are vested with the State government- appointed commissioner. UBHODEEP

  6. Operation of various parastatal agencies created by the State government Form of Urban development authorities (which build infrastructure) and Public corporations (which provide services such as water, electricity and transportation) function with a certain autonomy, are accountable only to the State government, not the local government Even urban planning and land-use regulation (globally a quintessential local government function) is with State government-controlled development authorities. S. UBHODEEP

  7. Further depoliticisation of local government in recent years Ocentral government programmes -the Smart Cities creation of special purpose vehicles (SPVs) for Smart Cities which will have "operational independence and autonomy in decision making and mission implementation" creation of parallel institutions that disempower the elected local government shows how higher levels of government distrust local politics Even for performing functions that are within its purview (such as levying local taxes or undertaking civic projects above a certain budget) the local government requires State government permissions. S. UBHODEEP

  8. Many of its key provisions are not mandatory for the State government. The functions listed under the 12th Schedule - which a State government is expected to devolve to the local government- do not include essential civic issues such as urban transportation, housing or urban commons. 74th Amendment also contains an industrial township exception whereby a municipality need not be constituted in areas which are declared as industrial townships. UBHODEEP

  9. Need: Do away with parastatal agencies and unelected commissioners are pre-74th Amendment legacies As cities struggle to meet the basic needs of their inhabitants, we must re-examine the existing modes of organising power in urban India. Unlike the 73rd Amendment which provides for three levels of panchayats (village, taluk, and district levels), power in urban areas is concentrated in a single municipal body (whether it is a municipal corporation, municipal council or town panchayat) As Indian cities have grown exponentially over the last 25 years, with some crossing the 10 million population mark, we must rethink the present model of urban governance that vests power in a singular municipality UBHODEEP

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